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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 21, No. 20
May 17, 2002


* +CC&R bill filed in Washington
*  FCC releases details on new band proposals
* +ARRL has a full schedule of activities at Dayton Hamvention
* +It's a wrap: Expedition 4 crew completes ARISS school QSO schedule
* +ARRL says 2390-2400 MHz "unavailable" to relocate other services
* +ARRL contest log checking reports available on the Web
* +Past ARRL President Bob Denniston, W0DX/VP2VI, SK
     This weekend on the radio
     FCC releases details of 5 MHz, 136kHz and 2400-2402 MHz proposals
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
    +On-line ARRL November Sweepstakes SSB results available
     Canada authorizes special amateur prefixes
     Migrating RV TV amplifiers bringing interference with them

+Available on ARRL Audio News

NOTE: Because of Dayton Hamvention, this week's editions of The ARRL
Letter and ARRL Audio News are being distributed Wednesday, May 15. The
Solar Update by Tad Cook, K7VVV, will be available on the ARRL Web site
and distributed to propagation bulletin subscribers Friday, May 17.


A bill introduced in Congress this week could provide relief to amateurs
prevented by private deed covenants, conditions and
restrictions--CC&Rs--from installing outdoor antennas. Rep Steve Israel
(D-NY) introduced the "Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency
Act" on May 14. The bill has been designated H.R. 4720. Rep Greg Walden,
WB7OCE (R-OR)--the only Amateur Radio operator in Congress--and Rep Pete
Sessions (R-TX) have signed on as original cosponsors.

With respect to ham antennas, the measure would subject private land-use
regulations to the PRB-1 limited federal preemption that now applies only
to governmental zoning and land-use regulations. It contains but one
sentence: "For purposes of the Federal Communications Commission's
regulation relating to station antenna structures in the Amateur Radio
Service (47 CFR 97.15), any private land use rules applicable to such
structures shall be treated as a state or local regulation and shall be
subject to the same requirements and limitations as a state or local

H.R. 4720 is expected to be assigned to the Telecommunications and
Internet Subcommittee of the House Energy and Commerce Committee.

Israel, whose father, Howard, is K2JCC, noted in a statement read into the
Congressional Record that the FCC does not now apply PRB-1 consistently.
"My bill addresses this issue and provides amateur radio licensees with
the ability to negotiate reasonable accommodation provisions with
homeowners' associations, just as they do now with public land-use

After the ARRL ran into a brick wall trying to convince the FCC to include
CC&Rs under PRB-1, the League's Board of Directors agreed to pursue a
congressional remedy. ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, and other League
officials met with Israel, Walden, Sessions and others on Capitol Hill
earlier this year to discuss the prospect of such a bill and how it should
be worded. With the proposal now in the legislative hopper, Haynie urged
ARRL members to write their members of Congress and voice support for the

Haynie said the important thing to point out is that the bill, if passed
by both houses of Congress and signed by the president, would give
amateurs living under CC&Rs an opportunity for reasonable accommodation
they don't have now.

Visit the US House of Representatives "Write Your Representative Service"
Web page <> for information on how to
contact your representative. A sample letter is available on the ARRL Web
site <>.

ARRL requests those writing or e-mailing members of Congress to copy ARRL
on their correspondence--via e-mail to or via US Mail to
CC&R Bill, ARRL, 225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111. Include the bill
number--H.R. 4720--your name and address on all correspondence.


The FCC has released the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in ET Docket 02-98,
which proposes to create new amateur allocations at 5 MHz and 136 kHz and
to elevate the status of Amateur Radio at 2400 to 2402 MHz from secondary
to primary. In response to separate petitions filed by the ARRL, the FCC
voted unanimously May 2 to adopt the NPRM in ET Docket 02-98.

The Commission announced in a Public Notice released May 9 that it would
propose a new, secondary, domestic (US-only) HF allocation at 5.25 to 5.4
MHz and a new LF allocation 135.7 to 137.8 kHz. If eventually approved,
the 5 MHz band would be the first new HF allocation since the early 1980s,
when amateurs got 30, 17 and 12 meters. The LF allocation would be the
first ever for US hams. The FCC said it received 87 comments on the 5 MHz
proposal and 32 comments on the LF proposal.

"We agree with ARRL that propagation and interference conditions in the
3500 kHz and 7000 kHz bands could hinder effective amateur HF
communications," the FCC said in its NPRM. "In particular, as ARRL
indicates, the nature of the ionosphere prevents communications during
certain portions of the day because of increased atmospheric noise levels
at certain times on certain frequencies."

The FCC said ARRL's WA2XSY experimental operation "appears to support its
contention" that the band could supplement  80 and 40 meters at certain

The FCC has proposed letting amateurs operate at full legal limit on a new
5 MHz allocation, but it left open for further discussion whether to
restrict the band to Amateur Extra Class licensees or make it available to
General and higher class licensees. The FCC also invited further comment
on whether the band should be broken down into mode-specific subbands. The
ARRL had proposed opening the entire band to RTTY, data (including CW),
phone and image emission types.

Assuming the 5-MHz band eventually is authorized, it could be a few years
before it actually becomes available. The band 5.250 to 5.450 MHz now is
allocated to Fixed and Mobile services on a co-primary basis in all three
ITU regions.

On 136 kHz, the FCC has proposed mirroring technical limits suggested by
Canada during World Radiocommunication Conference 2003 preparations to 1 W
effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) and with a transmission
bandwidth of only 100 Hz. The ARRL has asked for than 2 W EIRP and a
maximum transmitter power of 200 W PEP.

The FCC proposed no restrictions on antenna size or design, saying it did
not want to inhibit experimentation by hams. It proposed to limit access
to the band to General and higher-class licensees, as ARRL had proposed.

The FCC said it was reluctant to also propose allocating an amateur band
at 160 to 190 kHz--as ARRL had requested--because of concerns about
possible interference to unlicensed power line carrier (PLC) systems in
that band. The FCC noted it had turned down a 1978 ARRL petition for the
same reason.

The FCC said ARRL's request to upgrade the 2400-2402 MHz band "has merit."
It did not propose any changes in service rules or operational

The NPRM is available on the FCC Web site
<>. The
FCC is expected to soon make this proceeding available for comments filed
via its Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). Visit the ECFS site
<>, click on "Search for Filed
Comments" and enter "02-98" in the "Proceeding" field.


Dayton Hamvention 2002 gets under way Friday, May 17 and continues through
Sunday, May 19. Again this year, ARRL will bring a significant presence to
Hamvention. In addition to the ARRL concession in North Hall--where
visitors can purchase ARRL publications and other products, ask questions
or pick up free informational material--League personnel, officials and
representatives of ARRL's extended family will be taking part in several
Dayton forums and activities.

ARRL Great Lakes Division Director George Race, WB8BGY, will moderate the
ARRL Forum on Saturday, 8:15-9:45 AM, in Room 3. Featured speakers will
include President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, and Chief Executive Officer David
Sumner, K1ZZ, who will also take questions from the floor. Other
participants will include Chief Development Officer Mary Hobart, K1MMH;
Great Lakes Vice Director Gary Johnston, KI4LA; and Great Lakes Division
Assistant Director for Development Gary Des Combes, N8EMO.

ARRL Public Relations Committee member Jeff Reinhardt, AA6JR, will
moderate the ARRL Public Relations Forum Sunday, 8:30-10 AM, in Room 1.
The theme of this year's forum is "Emergency Response: Telling the Amateur
Radio Story." This informative session will cover the many public
relations issues hams face when emergency strikes--including how one
Public Information Coordinator handled the press after September 11 in New
York City.

In addition:

* ARRL Dakota Division Director Jay Bellows, K0QB, will participate in the
Ham Radio and the Law Forum, Friday, noon-1:30 PM, in Room 3.

* ARRL RF Safety Committee Chairman Greg Lapin, N9GL, will moderate the RF
Safety Forum, Friday, 1:45-2:45 PM, in Room 4. Lapin will address the
question, "How do we know what is safe?" Lapin also will discuss RF safety
issues and the news media. ARRL Lab Supervisor Ed Hare, W1RFI, will speak
on the topic, "How do we keep our stations within the safety limits?" Hare
will demonstrate how to perform the required RF safety assessment.

* QEX Editor Doug Smith, KF6DX, who chairs the ARRL Digital Voice Working
Group, will moderate the Digital Voice Forum, Sunday, 10:15 AM-noon, in
Room 1. The session will feature discussions and live audio demonstrations
plus presentations from world-renowned authorities on digital-audio
hardware, software and other technical details.

* QST Editor Steve Ford, WB8IMY, will discuss "The Fascination of PSK31"
at the PSK31 Forum, Friday, 8:15-10 AM, in Room 1.

This year's Dayton Hamvention marks the event's 50th year and the 51st
show. For more information, visit the Dayton Hamvention Web site


Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) school contacts
will be taking a break of several weeks. Astronaut Dan Bursch, KD5PNU,
this week completed the last QSO in a string of largely successful ARISS
school contacts by Expedition 4 crew members. Taking the controls of NA1SS
on May 14, Bursch answered questions posed by 15 students from the
Bordertown School in Bordertown, Australia.

Bursch was able to answer all of the students questions. Near the end of
the contact, he told the students to make the most of their education in
order to achieve their dreams and goals.

Hundreds of excited students and parents gave Bursch a huge cheer as the
ISS went over the horizon and the contact ended. The event was covered on
Australian radio and TV in prime time--at 8:30 PM local time in

Tony Hutchison, VK5ZAI, in South Australia was the school mentor and the
master of ceremonies for the event, which was made possible via a WorldCom
teleconferencing circuit with Gerald Klatzko, ZS6BTD, in South Africa.

ARISS School Contacts Coordinator Tim Bosma, W6ISS, took advantage of the
occasion of the last Expedition 4 school contact to thank all involved for
helping to make it--and the ARISS school contacts program--a success.

"I want to thank everyone involved; the folks at NASA who support this
program; the volunteer mentors who prepare the students and the schools;
the telebridge station operators who frequently have to get up in the
middle of the night to make these contacts; and the
organizations--WorldCom, AMSAT and the ARRL," Bosma said.

"Your support for this educational program makes it possible for students
to talk to the astronauts and get excited about careers in science. This
is a once-in-a-lifetime experience for the students, teachers and the
parents, and it does make a difference."

ARISS school contacts will resume in late June after the Expedition 5 crew
of mission commander and US astronaut Peggy Whitson, KC5ZTD, and Russian
cosmonauts Valeri Korzun and Sergei Treschev settles in aboard the
ISS.--Tim Bosma, W6ISS/ARISS


The ARRL has asked the FCC to pull the 2390-2400 MHz amateur band out of
consideration as possible "replacement spectrum" for relocated 800-MHz
Public Safety band users. But the ARRL did leave the FCC some wiggle room.
A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (WT Docket 02-55)--released in
mid-March--invited comments on either sharing the band with displaced
Public Safety services or moving amateurs elsewhere.

"The band is unavailable for relocation of Nextel or other CMRS services,
and should not be under consideration in this proceeding," the ARRL told
the FCC in comments filed May 6. The FCC had referred to 2390-2400 MHz as
an "Unlicensed PCS Band," but, as the League reminded the Commission,
"That band is allocated on a primary basis to the Amateur Service

In 1995, the FCC accepted a proposal negotiated by ARRL and Apple Computer
that involved a compatible sharing proposal for 2390-2400 MHz. Under the
plan, the band was allocated on a primary basis to the Amateur Service and
made available for use by asynchronous unlicensed Personal Communications
Service (UPCS) devices regulated under Part 15. In the current proceeding,
the FCC also sought comments on whether existing UPCS operations could
continue in the band or be forced to cease.

The FCC has said that increasing incidents of harmful interference to
public safety systems in the 800-MHz band prompted the latest rulemaking
proceeding, "Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band."
The Commission said its discussion of 2390-2400 MHz and other segments in
terms of replacement spectrum was intended to be "illustrative rather than
exclusive" and that other bands "may also merit consideration."

Last summer, the FCC invited comments on proposals to reallocate some
spectrum in the 2390 to 2400 MHz amateur segment--as well as in the
non-amateur 1.9 and 2.1 GHz bands--for possible use by unspecified mobile
and fixed services. The Commission has proposed 2390 to 2400 MHz and other
bands to support the introduction of advanced wireless services, including
so-called third-generation (3G) mobile systems.

The ARRL said it's not prepared to speculate on relocation spectrum for
amateurs if the primary amateur allocation is modified in either
proceeding and amateurs are displaced. The League suggested that "some
reaccommodation" might be made if the FCC allocates 2300-2305 MHz to the
Amateur Service on a primary basis.

"While that would be, at best, an incomplete solution for the Amateur
Service, it might contribute to the availability of some portion of the
2390-2400 MHz band for displaced 800 MHz licensees," the ARRL said. The
ARRL already has petitioned the FCC for primary status at 2300 to 2305
MHz. The petition faces competition from AeroAstro, which wants co-primary
status with the Amateur Service for its commercial satellite-based
location service.

The ARRL said it's "a simple matter" to conclude that there is no
compatibility between displaced 800 MHz incumbents and amateurs in the
band anymore than there would be to share it with advanced wireless
services, as earlier suggested.

"Sharing between the Amateur Service and commercial services, especially
mobile commercial services, is extremely difficult generally," the ARRL

The FCC recently proposed upgrading the adjacent Amateur Radio 2400-2402
MHz allocation from secondary to primary, mainly to protect satellite
operations. The AO-40 satellite has been successfully using the band for
downlink telemetry and transponder operation, and AMSAT plans a similar
downlink for its next satellite project. The Amateur Service already is
primary at 2402-2417 MHz. There's a secondary amateur allocation at
2417-2450 MHz.

The complete NPRM and a copy of ARRL's comments are available via the FCC
Electronic Comment Filing System Web site
<>. Click on "Search for Filed
Comments" and enter "02-55" in the "Proceeding" field.


Log Checking Reports (LCRs) now are available for selected ARRL contests.
These documents provide a detailed error analysis of a contest entry. LCRs
will be available for selected events commencing with the 2001 ARRL
November CW Sweepstakes. ARRL members may access the available reports on
the ARRL Web site <>. To access
your reports, you must be registered on the ARRL Web site as a League

ARRL Contest Branch Manager Dan Henderson, N1ND, said that while the
League recognizes that it's useful for participants to review errors found
in their contest logs, the ARRL has established firm guidelines regarding
how it will address inquiries.

"Simply put, we will not enter into discussions or debates over individual
QSOs," Henderson said. "All electronic log data is checked using custom
software. All logs are judged by the same criteria." Henderson said the
policy was dictated by the need to minimize staff time and avoid any
inequities in the treatment of individual contest entries.

Henderson said the log-checking software can--and does--perform a good job
of impartially adjudicating the logs. While audio tapes or files of
particular QSOs, e-mail confirmations from others or other types of
"documentation" can be useful for a contester's research and learning,
they "usually are not definitive and will not be considered" in the event
of a dispute.

The only exception might be in the rare event that a log file was
corrupted during transmission to the ARRL. "We will deal with these
problems as necessary," Henderson said.

Reports may be accessed as soon as the results for the ARRL contest become
available. For single operators, your log-in username (call sign) must be
the same as the one that appears on the log submitted for the event. If
you were a guest operator at another station or part of a multioperator
entry, you may access the LCR for that entry if your call sign appears as
an operator in the Cabrillo header (summary) for that log. ARRL members
without Internet access may request their LCR free of charge by sending a
request and an SASE to LCR Request, ARRL, Contesting Branch, 225 Main St,
Newington, CT 06111.

Non-ARRL members may obtain LCRs by mailing a request along with $3 and an
SASE for each event (eg, the Phone and CW weekends of the ARRL November
Sweepstakes count as separate events). For each request, include the name
and year of the contest as well as the call sign of the entry.

Henderson said the style and format for each LCR may differ from contest
to contest, since the various operating events are checked and processed
by different software. For more information, contact Henderson via e-mail or by telephone 860-594-0232.


Past ARRL President and DXpedition pioneer Bob Denniston, VP2VI and W0DX,
of Tortola, British Virgin Islands, died unexpectedly in his sleep May 12
or 13. He was 83. Denniston served as ARRL president from 1966 until 1972
and as International Amateur Radio Union president from 1966 until 1974.
He later was elected an ARRL honorary vice president.

"He was an Amateur Radio icon, and he will be missed," said ARRL President
Jim Haynie, W5JBP. "Our condolences go out to his family and many

ARRL Chief Executive Officer David Sumner, K1ZZ, said that Denniston
traveled extensively during his years as IARU president to promote IARU
membership and build support for Amateur Radio in anticipation of what
eventually became the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference. As a
result of WARC-79, Amateur Radio gained allocations at 30, 17 and 12

Denniston was a founding director of the IARU Region 3 Association in 1968
and served as chairman of the Second IARU Region 3 Conference in Tokyo in
1971. In 1972, he went to Managua, Nicaragua, to deliver equipment and to
assist personally in providing communications in the aftermath of a major

Japan Amateur Radio League President Shozo Hara, JA1AN, called Denniston
"a great leader" of Amateur Radio who would be long remembered.

After heading up the "Gon-Waki" VP7NG DXpedition to the Bahamas during the
1948 ARRL International DX Contest, Denniston--then W4NNN--was credited
with being the "father of the modern DXpedition." The DXpedition's name
was a spoof on Thor Heyerdahl's "Kon-Tiki" expedition the previous year.
(The full "Gon-Waki" story appeared in QST, Jul 1948, page 80.)

Denniston has said he didn't realize at the time that he was inventing the
concept, and he credited CM9AA with coining the expression "DXpedition."
In recent years, he and a group of friends commemorated the 1948 "Gon
Waki" milestone each March, setting up vintage equipment and using simple
wire antennas and hand keys to replicate the flavor of the original
DXpedition from his Tortola QTH.

Long-time friend Jim Livengood, W0NB (ex-KP2L), operated with Denniston
during some of the "Gon-Waki" recreations. "Bob was a treasure," Livengood
said. Livengood credited Denniston with "lighting the fire" that led him
into Amateur Radio and a career in broadcasting. "Bob was coaching new
hams in the British and US Virgin Islands as late as this spring," he
said."Bob loved our hobby, promoted its growth, and was an ardent
supporter of the League as long as I knew him."

Denniston's other firsts included Clipperton Island (FO8AJ) in 1954 and
Malpelo (HK0TU) in 1969. His strategy of visits to rare prefixes helped
earn him a world record ARRL International DX Contest score in 1960 from
VP1JH (now Belize).

"Bob Denniston was the operator's operator," said former ARRL staffer John
Nelson, K0IO (ex-W1GNC), who lives in Denniston's hometown of Newton,
Iowa. Nelson said Denniston promoted use of 160 meters years ago and
always encouraged newcomers to get on the air during Field Day. "It was
fascinating to watch him use a bug," Nelson said, "sending with an
easy-rolling motion of his wrist, and we beginner's took note of how the
rate went way up!"

Denniston was first licensed some 70 years ago as W9NWX at the age of 13
and later held W4NNN and W0NWX. He served for four years in the US Army
Signal Corps and was chief of the radio control section of radio station
WAR at the Pentagon. It was at WAR that he met his wife, Nell--a Women's
Army Corps CW operator. At the end of World War II, Denniston was the
radio operator aboard the presidential train.

Denniston was ARRL Midwest Division Director from 1956 until 1966, when he
was elected as the League's sixth president. While in Iowa, he had been
active in ARES and RACES. He was a Charter Life Member of the ARRL as well
as a charter member and past president of the Potomac Valley Radio Club.
He was the founder and president of the Virgin Islands Amateur Radio Club.

In his professional life, Denniston was president of Denniston and
Partridge, a firm that operated more than two dozen lumberyards at one
point. When he retired to the British Virgin Islands, he ran Smugglers
Cove Hotel in Tortola.

Denniston's wife, Nell, died two years ago. A son, Matt, and daughter,
Carol, are among his survivors. Funeral arrangements are incomplete.

Denniston remained active on the ham bands until his death--including
operation on 6 meters during the tremendous openings last year and early
this year. VP2VI QSL Manager Rick Casey, W6RKC, says he will continue to
handle requests for VP2VI cards. Send cards via W6RKC, 10640 Tabeaud Rd,
Pine Grove, CA 95665.



* This weekend on the radio: The Anatolian RTTY WW Contest, the His
Majesty the King of Spain Contest (CW) and the Baltic Contest are the
weekend of May 18-19. See the ARRL Contest Branch page
<> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the Level III Amateur Radio Emergency Communications
Course (EC-003) and for the HF Digital Communications Course (EC-005)
opens Monday, May 20, at 4 PM Eastern Daylight Time. Registration for the
Level II ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course (EC-002) and
for the Antenna Modeling Course (EC-004) will remain open through Sunday,
May 19, or until all available seats are filled. Registration for Level I
opens Monday, June 3, at 4 PM EDT. Emergency Communications courses must
be completed in order, starting with Level I. To learn more, visit the
ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page
<> and C-CE Links found there. For more
information, contact Certification and Continuing Education Coordinator
Dan Miller, K3UFG,

* Correction: In The ARRL Letter, Vol 21, No 19 (May 10, 2002), a report
on Kenwood's donation of a TS-2000X transceiver contained some incorrect
information on the transceiver's capabilities. The TS-2000X covers all
Amateur Radio bands from 1.8 MHz through 1.2 GHz, with the exception of
902 MHz and transmit capability on 222 MHz. It was reviewed in the July
2001 issue of QST.

* On-line ARRL November Sweepstakes SSB results available: On-line results
for the 2001 ARRL November Sweepstakes (SSB) now are available on the ARRL
Web site <>. Included with these are
an expanded contest writeup by Kelly Taylor, VE4XT; a searchable database
on the results of the Affiliated Club Competition for Sweepstakes; and
other interesting sidebars and photographs.

* Canada authorizes special amateur prefixes: All Canadian Radio Amateurs
have been authorized to use special prefixes to celebrate the Golden
Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. From May 18 through July 18 2002, the
following special prefixes are authorized on a voluntary basis: XM1 for
VE1; XM4 for VE4; XM8 for VE8; XL1 for VA1; XM5 for VE5; XM9 for VE9; XM2
for VE2; XL5 for VA5; XN1 for VO1; XL2 for VA2; XM6 for VE6; XN2 for VO2;
XM3 for VE3; XL6 for VA6; XO0 for VY0; XL3 for VA3; XM7 for VE7; XO0 for
VY1; XL4 for VA4; XL7 for VA7; and XO2 for VY2.--Industry Canada

* Migrating RV TV amplifiers bringing interference with them: As many
recreational vehicle owners make their seasonal trek northward,
unintentional radio interference may be hitchhiking. As reported in
February 2001 <>, certain
amplified TV antennas have been found to produce interference in the
400-500 MHz range that could cause problems for Public Safety and Amateur
Radio systems. Winegard has been replacing its offending Sensar antenna
units at no cost. See the Winegard Web site
<> for
details. The FCC's Dave Galosky in the Office of Engineering and
Technology says Winegard estimates there still may be thousands of
defective units in the field. Boat and RV owners using these antennas may
experience interference to onboard systems, such as GPS. According to the
FCC, similar antennas from three other manufacturers also produce
interference. The RadioShack RS 1624--made by TDP Electronics--transmits a
spurious emission at 468 MHz and at its second harmonic, 936 MHz. The
Shakespeare Seawatch 2050 antenna and an unspecified antenna model made by
RCA/Thompson also have been reported to generate similar interference, the
FCC says.

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely,
accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb at for
the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRLWeb Extra at offers ARRL members access to
informative features and columns.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to
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The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

Much of the ARRL Letter content is also available in audio form in ARRL Audio News.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to The ARRL Letter and The American Radio Relay League.

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