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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 21, No. 30
August 2, 2002


* +HR 4720 CC&R bill attracts more cosponsors
* +ARRL staff member Steve Mansfield, N1MZA, SK
* +ARES teams on alert as wildfires threaten
* +RACES team activated following train derailment
* +New ham antennas set for installation on space station
* +ARRL HQ welcomes new staff members
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Program update
     New Sacramento Valley SM announced
     ARRL Technical Relations Office continues busy schedule
     KD5MDT in for KC5FVF on next ISS mission
     Michael "Father Mike" Mullen, WB2GQW, SK
     Robert E. Baird, W9NN, SK
     Mobile Ham Radio Museum to visit New England Division, AWA

+Available on ARRL Audio News



Additional cosponsors have signed aboard HR 4720, the bill in Congress
aimed at providing relief to amateurs faced with private deed covenants,
conditions and restrictions--CC&Rs--in erecting antennas. The list of 18
members of Congress who have agreed to cosponsor the measure includes two
amateurs. They are Oregon Republican Greg Walden, WB7OCE--one of the two
original cosponsors of HR 4720 with Texas Republican Pete Sessions--and
Arkansas Democrat Mike Ross, WD5DVR.

Walden and Ross are believed to be the only Amateur Radio licensees in the
US House of Representatives. The House now is in recess until after Labor

Arkansas Section Manager Bob Ideker, WB5VUH, who ran into Ross at the
Little Rock airport while both were waiting for flights, claims at least
some credit for getting the Arkansas Fourth District representative to
sign onto the bill as a cosponsor. Ideker also has invited Ross--a Novice
licensee and ARRL member--to visit some club meetings in his district.

New York Democrat Steve Israel introduced HR 4720--the "Amateur Radio
Emergency Communications Consistency Act"--on May 14. The measure would
require private land-use regulators--such as homeowners' associations--to
"reasonably accommodate" Amateur Radio communication consistent with the
PRB-1 limited federal preemption. PRB-1 now applies only to states and

In addition to Walden, Sessions and Ross, the list of HR 4720 cosponsors
now includes Representatives JD Hayworth (R-AZ), Patrick Tiberi (R-OH),
Patsy Mink (D-HI), Ken Calvert (R-CA), Rick Boucher (D-VA), Joseph Hoeffel
(D-PA), John Duncan Jr (R-TN), Dennis Moore (D-KS), Charles Stenholm
(D-TX), David Price (D-NC), Bob Schaffer (R-CO), Sherrod Brown (D-OH),
Bart Gordon (D-TN), Charles Taylor (R-NC), and Ralph Hall (D-TX).

Visit the US House of Representatives Write Your Representative Service
Web page <> for information on how to
contact your representative. The ARRL requests those writing or e-mailing
members of Congress--whether or not they are supporting this
legislation--to copy ARRL on their correspondence--via e-mail to or via US Mail to CC&R Bill, ARRL, 225 Main St,
Newington, CT 06111. Correspondents should include the bill number, HR
4720, as well as their name and address on all correspondence.


ARRL Legislative and Public Affairs Manager Steve Mansfield, N1MZA, of
West Hartford, Connecticut, died July 29 following a spirited battle with
brain cancer. He was 55. With the League for 11 years, Mansfield was the
ARRL's representative on Capitol Hill and managed the League's public
relations efforts. Although he initially bounced back following a
diagnosis of brain cancer and subsequent surgery in 2000, he had suffered
several setbacks in recent months.

"I shall remember his wit and enthusiasm when we worked together in
Washington," ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, said of Mansfield--an
avowed "political junkie" who'd accompanied Haynie on official trips to
DC. "He loved his job and he will be missed."

Among Mansfield's most notable accomplishments was his behind-the-scenes
effort to facilitate introduction of the Amateur Radio Spectrum Protection
Act, HR 817. The measure--still before Congress--would ensure that
amateurs receive equivalent replacement spectrum for any frequencies lost
to other services. Mansfield also was deeply involved in the effort to
promote HR 4720, the Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency
Act, which would provide relief to amateurs prevented by deed covenants,
conditions and restrictions--CC&Rs--from installing outdoor antennas. HR
4720 would make such private land-use regulations subject to the PRB-1
limited federal preemption. Mansfield also wrote and edited "DC Currents,"
which detailed the League's Washington efforts in QST.

As part of ARRL's "Washington Team," Mansfield gave a face to Amateur
Radio as he shared its story with members of Congress and their staffers.
ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, remembered Mansfield as "a
consummate professional and team player" with "a keen, probing intellect."

ARRL Chief Executive Officer David Sumner, K1ZZ, said Mansfield "did an
extraordinary job for the League in Washington." Mansfield came aboard in
1991 with "the right stuff," Sumner recalled, and, although not a ham when
he joined the staff, Mansfield rekindled the passion for Amateur Radio
he'd felt after building a shortwave receiver as a youngster in Indiana,
and he soon became N1MZA.

Mansfield, who held degrees from Wabash College and Columbia University,
was an avid runner, rock climber, hiker and kayaker. He also had an
affection for Ireland, its landscape, its people and its music. In QST for
February 1995 he wrote a feature, "Hams at the New York City Marathon,"
< > which reflected
his enthusiasm for running and personal fitness.

ARRL Public Relations Manager Jennifer Hagy, N1TDY, worked for Mansfield
for eight years. "Steve was my mentor and my friend," she said. "I'll
never forget the day he hired me, or the lessons he's taught me,
professionally and personally. I will miss him deeply." Roanoke Division
Director Dennis Bodson, W4PWF, called Mansfield "a very dedicated, and
hard-working individual who loved his work and the League."

Mansfield leaves his wife, Ellyn, two daughters, Ramona and Elizabeth, two
sisters and a brother. Condolences may be sent c/o Ellyn Mansfield, 102
Clifton Ave, W Hartford, CT 06107-1720.

A memorial service was set for Saturday, August 3, in Hartford. In lieu of
flowers, the family invites memorial contributions to a food bank of your
choice or to The Burris School, Ball State University Foundation, PO Box
672, Muncie, IN 47308.


West Coast Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) teams were on alert at
week's end to provide emergency communication as the Florence and Sour
Biscuit wildfires in southwestern Oregon threatened to merge, creating a
"mega fire." ARRL Oregon Section Manager Marshall Johnson, KK7CW, said
local hams were helping to curb rumors regarding evacuations and
supporting local public service agencies.

"ARES and served agencies are still assessing the resources necessary to
keep homes from being destroyed and residents as safe as possible," he
told ARRL. "Pray for us."

Johnson says resources in Oregon to fight more than a dozen fires are
being stretched to the limit. "Municipal and Regional fire departments are
sending mutual aid personnel to help fight the blazes," he said. According
to Johnson, nearly one-half million acres have burned so far this summer,
although August 1 was the first official day of fire season in Oregon.

Meanwhile, ARRL San Francisco Section Manager Len Gwinn, WA6KLK, said ARES
teams from Crescent City and Humboldt, Mendocino and Sonoma counties in
California were standing by to assist. Gwinn also was in contact with
Sacramento Valley Section Emergency Coordinator Dave Thorne, K6SOJ, to
arrange ARES mutual aid between the two ARRL sections.

"Everyone is still on standby to evacuate," Gwinn said August 1, adding
that shelters in Crescent City, California, and Grants Pass, Oregon, were
quiet for the moment. Residents in the Illinois Valley in Oregon's
Josephine County have been warned to be ready to voluntarily evacuate on
30 minutes notice. Officials also have been encouraging voluntary
relocations of the elderly, families with children and of those having
medical conditions or needing special assistance.

At risk are the communities of Selma and Cave Junction and the surrounding
areas. The Florence Fire has covered more than 145,000 acres, while the
Sour Biscuit fire has claimed more than 35,000 acres. The two fires were
within a couple of miles of each other on July 31 and only about 5 percent
contained. Firefighters have been attempting to bulldoze a firebreak.

While ARES operation typically has been on VHF, Gwinn said the Crescent
City and Grants Pass centers planned to test 40 and 80-meter midday
conditions. "This is because if the linked repeaters between the cities go
down for any reason, they will have to resort to HF to get over the hill
between the cities," Gwinn explained. He said Family Radio Service (FRS)
radios also were being used in areas near the centers also.

"These are major fires, and there is at least two and a half months of
fire season remaining," outgoing ARRL Sacramento Valley SM Jerry Boyd,
K6BZ, said in a message this week to members in his section. "Let's keep
our preparedness high."


Activated following a July 29 Washington, DC, area passenger train
derailment, the Montgomery County, Maryland, Radio Amateur Civil Emergency
Service (RACES) team proved itself ready but--at least this time--not
essential to the rescue and recovery. More than a dozen RACES members
stood down after approximately three hours on duty.

"All's well that ends well," said Montgomery County Deputy RACES Officer
John Creel, WB3GXW. "We were ready, but it didn't happen." Creel said the
group mostly passed "get ready" messages.

County officials called out the RACES team after 11 cars of an Amtrak
train bound for the nation's capital from Chicago went off the tracks.
There were dozens of injuries, some serious, but no deaths as a result of
the mishap, which occurred in Kensington, Maryland, just north of

Montgomery County RACES Officer Howard Gorden, W3CQH, was at the scene of
the crash, and RACES members staffed the Hospital Radio Net on the area's
146.955 repeater. Other operators were stationed at the Montgomery County
Emergency Operations Center as well as at two local hospitals to handle
possible traffic on mass casualties. Additional operators stood by for
deployment to local shelters as well.

As it turned out, no shelters were needed, and hospitals were able to
accommodate the injured without problems. Passengers not hospitalized were
bussed to Washington's Union Station, which was their ultimate
destination, Creel said.


The last two Amateur Radio antennas are scheduled to be installed this
month on the International Space Station's Zvezda Service Module--the
crew's living quarters. The specially designed flexible-tape antennas will
support Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) VHF and
UHF operation and are similar to an antenna installed last January 14 by
the Expedition 4 crew.

ARISS International Group Chairman Frank Bauer, KA3HDO, says current plans
call for Expedition 5 crew members to carry out space walks (called
extra-vehicular activities or EVAs) August 16 and August 22. The two ARISS
antennas could be installed during one or both of those EVAs. The all-ham
Expedition 5 crew members are commander Valery Korzun, RZ3FK, cosmonaut
Sergei Treschev, RZ3FU, and US astronaut Peggy Whitson, KC5ZTD.

Bauer said ARISS was working with its Russian partners on EVA procedures.
"Once these antennas are installed and some tests planned for September
are completed in Russia, additional ISS ham radio equipment will be
installed in the Service Module," he said.

ARISS initial ham station gear--a single-band Ericsson 5-W hand-held
transceiver for 2 meters--is installed in the Zarya Functional Cargo Block
(FGB) using an antenna initially installed to aid docking operations and
EVAs. The new VHF-UHF antennas and a flexible-tape HF antenna also
installed January 25 are designed for and dedicated to ARISS operations.
There is no HF gear aboard the ISS at this point.

Installation of the new antenna on Zvezda makes possible two separate ham
stations aboard Space Station Alpha. Bauer said the additional gear due to
be installed in the Service Module is one of the 5-W 70-cm transceivers
already aboard the ISS. The ARISS 2-meter transceiver now in use from the
FGB will remain operational. "This will provide multiband operation," he
said. Plans down the road call for installing HF gear at the ARISS station
as well as higher power VHF and UHF equipment.

While the ARISS schedule of school contacts has been at a lull during the
summer, Korzun has taken time to make some casual contacts. In addition,
Bauer reported, Korzun logged nearly 140 ARRL Field Day contacts in June.
He also connected a computer to the ARISS packet module and got the system
running again after it was down for several weeks.

Bauer advised packet operators to stick with UNPROTO operations whenever
possible and to use the Packet Mailbox System (PMS) only sparingly, if at
all, for brief messages.

ARISS is an international project sponsored jointly by ARRL, NASA and
AMSAT. A paper entitled "2001: an Amateur Radio Space Odyssey on the
International Space Station," which details the development of ARISS and
discusses the four new ARISS antennas, is available via the ARISS Web site


ARRL this week welcomed Chuck Skolaut, K0BOG, as the newest member of the
Headquarters staff. Skolaut joined ARRL Field and Educational Services
July 30 as a field and regulatory correspondent. He'll be working with the
Amateur Auxiliary to the FCC and the ARRL Official Observer program as
well as assisting with field organization and regulatory information

"Amateur Radio has played an important part of my life," says Skolaut, 59,
who came to ARRL Headquarters from Great Bend, Kansas, after a career in
television broadcasting.

As a part of the Field Organization/Public Service Team, Skolaut will work
closely with Team Leader Steve Ewald, WV1X, and with Regulatory
Information Branch Correspondent John Hennessee, N1KB.

Skolaut says Amateur Radio captured his attention while he was in high
school in 1960. "I can still remember my first CW contact," he said.
Skolaut attended Wichita Technical Institute. As part of the Kansas Air
National Guard, he learned radioteletype repair and later went on active
duty as a radio operator. Back home, he was employed in engineering and
operations by TV stations in Great Bend and Wichita.

Skolaut says his older daughter Elizabeth, now KA0YSP, acquired her dad's
interest in ham radio while she was in the fifth grade and soon worked her
way from Novice to General. His wife, Mary, now N0TIK, and younger
daughter, Angie, now N0UAI, soon followed. His brother, Vernon, is WA0NHS.

Skolaut says he's looking forward to serving the ARRL membership in his
daily activities. In his new position, he replaces Brennan Price, N4QX,
who has assumed new duties as QST "Product Review" editor and as managing
editor of National Contest Journal--NCJ. Price, who joined the ARRL
Headquarters staff in April of 2000, also maintains editorial
responsibility for the ARRL Repeater Directory. He also occupies the
National Frequency Coordinators' Office. In his "spare time," he's
pursuing a law degree at the University of Connecticut School of Law. He
expects to graduate in 2005.

Also new to Field and Educational Services is Jerry Ellis, WS1K. A native
of Long Island, New York, Ellis, 57, came aboard in late May as ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE) Program Assistant, working
under ARRL C-CE Program Coordinator Dan Miller, K3UFG.

First licensed in 1992, Ellis says he was involved in the Amateur Radio
Emergency Service on Long Island, where he held the call sign KG2LL and
served as Assistant Emergency Coordinator for Smithtown Township. He
relocated to Connecticut about two years ago to be near his fiancée (and
now wife) Kim. When he upgraded to Extra earlier this year, he obtained

Ellis says he considers it an honor to be working at ARRL Headquarters.
"Employment with ARRL is a milestone in my life, and I really respect the
privilege of contributing to Amateur Radio through my employment here," he


Solar solon Tad "You Are My Sunshine" Cook, K7VVV, Seattle, Washington,
reports: Sunspots keep growing and growing, and one wonders if the peak of
the solar cycle has really passed. With sunspot numbers topping 300 this
week, it almost seems like a third peak in a cycle with a double peak so
far. Sunspot numbers peaked on Saturday at 323--the highest number since
March 2001. The mean daily sunspot numbers for the week were 122 points
higher than the previous week. Average daily solar flux was up by nearly
39 points.

Average daily sunspot numbers for all of July were 183.5. This is much
higher than June, which was 146, but not as high as May's average, at
204.1. Average daily solar flux for July was 174.4, higher than then 148.7
for June and around the same as May's 178.4.

Over the next few days solar flux values should decline a bit. Solar flux
predicted for Friday through Monday is 185, 180, 170 and 165. Current
helioseismic readings suggest several active regions on the sun's far
side, so more excitement may be in store. There is the possibility of
aurora on Friday morning. The predicted planetary A index for Friday
through Monday is 15, 10, 12 and 10.

Sunspot numbers for July 25 through 31 were 299, 319, 323, 300, 304, 297
and 265, with a mean of 301. The 10.7-cm flux was 217.7, 241.5, 230.8,
238.8, 234, 227.2 and 208.5, with a mean of 228.4. Estimated planetary A
indices were 13, 17, 19, 12, 11, 8 and 9, with a mean of 12.7.



* This weekend on the radio: The North American QSO Party (CW), the ARRL
UHF Contest, the 10-10 International Summer Contest (SSB), and the
European HF Championship are the weekend of August 3-4. JUST AHEAD: WAE DX
Contest (CW) and the Maryland-DC QSO Party are the weekend of August
10-11. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <>
and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Program update: Attention
Connecticut Amateurs! Don't miss the opportunity to take one of the United
Technology Corporation-funded seats in the ARRL Level I Amateur Radio
Emergency Communications on-line course (EC-001). Two class sections are
now open. Register for classes starting either August 5 or September 2 by
visiting the secure ARRL Course Registration Page
<> and clicking on the blue hypertext link
"Register" next to the class section you prefer. As ARRL implements
nationwide emergency communications training funded by the recently
announced $181,900 Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS)
grant, please be patient. No new Level I on-line classes will be offered
in August except to Connecticut amateurs. There is no waiting list for the
federally funded emergency communications training. Updates will be posted
as soon as crucial details are worked out and information become
available. All other ARRL Certification and Continuing Education courses
will remain open for registration as normally scheduled. To learn more,
visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page
<> and the C-CE Links found there. For more
information, contact Certification and Continuing Education Program
Coordinator Dan Miller, K3UFG,

* New Sacramento Valley SM announced: ARRL Field and Educational Services
Manager Rosalie White, K1STO, has appointed Jettie Hill, W6RFF, of
Roseville, California, to succeed Jerry Boyd, K6BZ, as ARRL Sacramento
Valley Section Manager. Boyd is moving out of the section. The appointment
of Hill, who had previously served for more than 10 years as Sacramento
Valley SM, was effective August 1. Boyd was appointed in 2000 to replace
Hill, who has continued to serve the section as Affiliated Club
Coordinator and as an Official Relay Station. Hill previously served as
Santa Clara Valley Section Communications Manager from 1978 until 1982 and
as ARRL Pacific Division Vice Director in 1982 and 1983.

* ARRL Technical Relations Office continues busy schedule: Members of the
ARRL Technical Relations Office staff have attended numerous meetings in
preparation for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Conference
Preparatory Meeting (CPM), the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference, studies
related to World Radiocommunication Conference 2003 (WRC-03) and the
Inter-American Telecommunication Commission (CITEL--Comisión
Interamericana de Telecomunicaciones). ARRL Technical Specialist Jon
Siverling, WB3ERA, attended meetings in Fortaleza, Brazil, where he
chaired the CITEL group developing input to Chapter 5 of the CPM Report
(containing Amateur Radio and other items). ARRL Technical Specialist Walt
Ireland, WB7CSL, worked with ITT Industries on simulation of amateur
systems and synthetic aperture radars (SARs). Initial results showed that
some sharing may be possible between Amateur Radio and SARs, but not with
the higher power SARs. The Technical Relations Office continues to study
the characteristics of proposed radio local area networks (RLANs) and
their interaction with amateur systems in the vicinity of 5.8 GHz. ARRL
Technical Relations Manager Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, was in Geneva,
Switzerland, for two weeks as a member of the US delegation to the ITU
Special Committee on Regulatory and Procedural Matters related to WRC-03.

* KD5MDT in for KC5FVF on next ISS mission: Astronaut Don Pettit, KD5MDT,
has been named to replace Don Thomas, KC5FVF, as a member of the
Expedition 6 International Space Station crew. Pettit had been training as
backup flight engineer for the increment six team. NASA said the
reassignment resulted from a medical issue that affects Thomas'
long-duration space flight qualifications. "The demanding nature of
long-term space flight requires a conservative approach to crew health
issues, especially this early in the program," said Astronaut Office Chief
Charlie Precourt, KB5YSQ. Thomas--a SAREX veteran who's flown on four
space shuttle flights and logged more than 1040 hours in space--has been
training for his ISS assignment for more than three years. Pettit will
join Expedition 6 Commander Kenneth Bowersox, KD5JBP, and Russian
cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin, RV3DB. A chemical engineer who holds a PhD,
Pettit served as a staff scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory in
New Mexico before joining the astronaut corps. Pettit, Bowersox and
Budarin all are experienced Amateur Radio operators. This will mark the
third all-ham crew aboard the ISS.

* Michael "Father Mike" Mullen, WB2GQW, SK: The Rev Michael "Father Mike"
Mullen, WB2GQW, of Jamaica, New York, died June 13 after a lengthy
illness. He was 87. The long-time president of St John's University Radio
Club, Father Mike most often was heard on the air using the club's call
sign, WA2KUX. For many years, he also served as the editor of the
International Missionary Radio Association (IMRA) newsletter. "His
tireless dedication to the charter of IMRA, providing communications to
missionaries, made him stand out as one of the true moral forces in the
world and in Amateur Radio," said ARRL Hudson Division Vice Director Steve
Mendelsohn, W2ML. Father Mike discovered Amateur Radio during a 1966 trip
to Panama and obtained his license in 1968. He joined IMRA that same year
and served nine terms as its president. During his tenure, he was
instrumental in developing an emergency preparedness plan to help The
Salvation Army, Church World Service and Catholic Relief Service to help
expedite the flow of information about local conditions during
emergencies--primarily focusing on Latin America and the Caribbean. He
also raised funds to supply generators to IMRA members in Latin America.
In recognition of his efforts, Father Mike was named the winner of the
Dayton Hamvention Special Achievement Award in 1986 and the ARRL
International Humanitarian Award in 1988. A service was held June 18.

* Robert E. Baird, W9NN, SK: Bob Baird, W9NN, of Plover, Wisconsin, died
August 1. He was 96. Baird was one of the longest-licensed amateurs in the
US, having been a ham for more than eight decades. "Bob was an icon, and
he will be missed by many in Wisconsin and around the world," said ARRL
Wisconsin Section Manager Don Michalski, W9IXG. Baird remained active on
the air until shortly before his death and was often heard on 40-meter CW.
He reportedly died peacefully in his sleep with his niece, Betty Johnson,
WD9AUC, at his side. A native of Dayton, Ohio, Baird was first licensed as
a youngster in 1920 as 8BTI. He was engineering supervisor for WGN radio
in Chicago, retiring after 36 years of service. Baird was a founder and
charter member of the Quarter Century Wireless Association, and he's on
the QCWA Honor Roll. In addition, Baird founded the W9DXCC gathering. He
also was a member of the ARRL, the Old Old Timers' Club, the First-class
CW Operators Club, the Central Wisconsin Radio Amateurs at the University
of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, and the Rib Mountain Repeater Association. A
QCWA memorial scholarship fund will be established. Donations payable to
"QCWA Scholarship Fund" may be sent in care of Betty Johnson, 4820 Love
Creek Ave, Plover, WI 54467-9526.

* Mobile Ham Radio Museum to visit New England Division, AWA conventions:
QST "Old Radio" editor John Dilks, K2TQN, says he plans to have his Mobile
Ham Radio Museum at this year's ARRL New England Division Convention
<>, August 23-25, in Boxboro, Massachusetts, and at
the Antique Wireless Association annual conference
<> August 28-31 in
Rochester, New York. Dilks says the museum-in-an-RV features some new
exhibits for its fourth anniversary, including a scanning disk TV receiver
that dates back to around 1932, a Hallicrafters S-1 receiver, the first
model the company produced, and a 1927 tuned-grid, tuned-plate (TGTP)
transmitter featured on the cover of the January 2002 issue of QST and
discussed in that month's "Old Radio" column. For more information about
Dilks' museum on wheels, visit the Mobile Ham Radio Museum Web site
<>.--The Old Timer's Bulletin/AWA

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely,
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Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to
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==>Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!):
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The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

Much of the ARRL Letter content is also available in audio form in ARRL Audio News.

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