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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 22, No. 14
April 4, 2003


* +CC&R bill back in Congress
* +Spectrum Protection Act attracts major cosponsor
* +Astronauts share ARISS school QSO duties
* +Two ham-astronauts named as next ISS crew
* +ARRL inaugurates WRC-03 Web campaign
* +ARRL staffer Al Alvareztorres, AA1DO, SK
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Emergency Communications course registration
    +ST0RY Sudan operation is QRT
     Baghdad ham club station dismantled prior to bombing
     Cingular Wireless petition cites ARRL Part 15 position
     Number of grant-sponsored ARECC grads tops 1000
     When does a CSCE also confer HF operating authority?
     YHOTY nominations open
     International DX Convention set for May 2-4
     WQ4L is NAB Radio Engineering Achievement Award winner
     Boston Marathon still needs ham radio volunteers

+Available on ARRL Audio News



Another Congressional attempt is under way to provide relief to amateurs
prevented by private deed covenants, conditions and restrictions (CC&Rs)
from installing outdoor antennas. Rep Steve Israel (D-NY) has again
introduced the "Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency Act"
into the current session of Congress. The measure, designated HR 1478,
would require private land-use regulators such as homeowners' associations
to "reasonably accommodate" Amateur Radio antennas consistent with the
PRB-1 limited federal preemption. PRB-1 now applies only to states and

In remarks introducing HR 1478, Israel said passage of his bill not only
would assist Amateur Radio operators but society as a whole. "Organized
Amateur Radio operators--or "hams"--regularly provide emergency
communication when regular communications channels are disrupted by
disaster," Israel pointed out. The growth of developed communities has put
a growing number of hams under an "array of inconsistent regulations," he
said, that make it harder and harder--or altogether impossible--to erect
the necessary antennas.

"Not allowing hams the equipment they need could restrict communication to
the local community in similar situations in the future." Israel said his
bill "seeks to ensure the continued viability of Amateur Radio through
consistent application of federal regulations."

The one-sentence measure is identical to the text of the CC&R bill that
was introduced in the last Congress: "For purposes of the Federal
Communications Commission's regulation relating to station antenna
structures in the Amateur Radio Service (47 CFR 97.15), any private land
use rules applicable to such structures shall be treated as a state or
local regulation and shall be subject to the same requirements and
limitations as a state or local regulation."

HR 1478 has bipartisan support. Leading the list of 13 initial cosponsors
for the measure are Reps Greg Walden, WB7OCE, (R-OR) and Mike Ross,
WD5DVR, (D-AR)--believed to be the only Amateur Radio licensees in
Congress. Joining them are representatives Tammy Baldwin (D-WI), Roscoe
Bartlett (R-MD), Marion Berry (D-AR), Rick Boucher (D-VA), Jo Ann Davis
(R-VA), Ralph Hall (D-TX), Carolyn McCarthy (D-NY), Michael McNulty
(D-NY), Dennis Moore (D-KS), Charles Taylor (R-NC) and Patrick Tiberi

ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, said he was happy to see the bill back
before Congress. "Of course I am very pleased that Rep Israel has
reintroduced the bill," Haynie said. "The League can do the mechanics, but
it is now up to our members to write their elected representative and urge
support and ask that they cosponsor and support the bill." Haynie noted
that the League has recently ramped up its efforts to educate members of
Congress about Amateur Radio, but he said lawmakers respond best to
individual members.

HR 1478 has been assigned to the House Energy and Commerce Committee.
Information about the bill and a sample letter to use when contacting your
representative are available on the ARRL Web site


The chairman of the Senate Communications Subcommittee, Montana Republican
Conrad Burns, has signed on as a cosponsor of the Amateur Radio Spectrum
Protection Act, Senate Bill 537. The commitment by Burns, the expected
architect of the Senate's spectrum management legislation, indicates that
the measure--an ARRL initiative on its third attempt in Congress--now has
his attention. Burns' cosponsorship also could convince others to follow

The Amateur Radio Spectrum Protection Act of 2003 has been introduced in
both chambers of Congress. Florida Rep Michael Bilirakis filed the House
version of the bill, HR 713, on February 12, while Idaho Sen Michael Crapo
introduced the Senate version, S 537, on March 6.

The legislation would amend the Communications Act to require the FCC to
provide "equivalent replacement spectrum" to Amateur Radio and the
Amateur-Satellite Service in the event of a reallocation of primary
amateur allocations, any reduction in secondary amateur allocations, or
additional allocations within such bands that would substantially reduce
their utility to amateurs. Bilirakis and Crapo, both Republicans, have
twice before sponsored similar legislation at the League's recommendation.

The bills point out Amateur Radio's volunteer role in providing emergency
communication "before, during, and after floods, hurricanes, tornadoes,
forest fires, earthquakes, blizzards, train accidents, chemical spills,
and other disasters." They also note that FCC actions "have resulted in
the loss of at least 107 MHz of spectrum to radio amateurs."

A Billings, Montana, amateur with a professional and personal relationship
with Burns--ARRL member Terry Whiteside, W7WWW--was instrumental in
calling the senator's attention to the measure. A transportation attorney,
Whiteside called the Amateur Radio Spectrum Protection Act "a natural" for
inclusion in spectrum management and reform legislation expected to come
out of this session of Congress.

ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, has encouraged League members to urge
their senators and representatives and to cosponsor the bills.
Cosponsorhip lends support to legislation while it's in committee. The
House bill has been referred to the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and
the Internet; the Senate bill will be considered by the Commerce, Science,
and Transportation Committee. "Letters and e-mails are the key to getting
legislation passed," Haynie says. So far, there are three Senate and 15
House cosponsors.

A sample letter is available on the ARRL Web site
<>. Those writing their
lawmakers are asked to copy their correspondence to the League via e-mail
<>;. The text of HR 713 and S 537 is available via the
Thomas Web site <>.


US astronauts Don Pettit, KD5MDT, and Ken Bowersox, KD5JBP, handled
separate Amateur Radio on the International Space Station school QSOs
March 26. In the morning (UTC), Pettit answered 20 questions put to him by
students at Japan's Higashi Kaneko Junior High School. Later that day,
Bowersox, the Expedition 6 crew commander, did the same for the Selnica
Primary School in Slovenia, where the control operator asked the
questions. The second contact marked the first ARISS QSO involving a
school in Slovenia.

"During the course of our mission, we will celebrate two birthdays in
space," Pettit informed one of the students in Japan who had asked if the
crew had planned any parties in space. "We have already celebrated the
birthday of our commander, and in April, we will be celebrating my
birthday." Actually, Bowersox turned 46 last November 14, just before the
crew launched on its journey to the ISS. Pettit will be 48 on April 20.
Pettit told the students that he was just 12 when he decided to become an

Pettit said he would be able to see Japan from space but there are no
windows in the Service Module, where the NA1SS ham gear is located. Pettit
said he spends his free time mostly doing science projects and catching up
on his notes on his computer.

The aurora borealis--the northern lights--is quite a sight when viewed
from space, Pettit said. "The northern aurora is most beautiful!" he
exclaimed. "It reminds me of a glowing cloud in the sky. I can't think of
any other natural event that is more beautiful than aurora." Seventeen
students participated in the contact from 8N1ISS.

Students at the Selnica Primary School in Slovenia enjoyed listening in on
an evening space chat with Bowersox during which they could also see the
spacecraft passing overhead. The ARISS QSO was a public event, with a
local Boy Scout club station, S59TTT, set up in a camping trailer in the
schoolyard. Scoutmaster Ivan Dobnik, S51DI, doubled as control operator
and quizmaster.

Bowersox said the most beautiful views from space are during the nighttime
portion of the space stations's orbit-- when the crew can see the
stars--and at times of sunrise and sunset. Bowersox--who's known by his
nickname "Sox" within the Astronaut Corps--said he sleeps very well in
microgravity. "It's almost like having the perfect bed," he declared. He
also was asked if any of the other astronauts snore. "I sleep so well,
I've never heard never heard anyone snore here," he said.

Bowersox said he really enjoyed the food aboard the ISS, but with such a
beautiful view out the window, "the food doesn't matter so much." The crew
is growing some bean plants and some herbs as part of its scientific
research, he explained in reply to another query.

Questions regarding personal hygiene have become more common. The contact
with Slovenia included one about shaving in space. "The actual process of
shaving doesn't feel that great," Bowersox said, adding that it's good to
have a clean face. He also told those gathered in Slovenia that he expects
construction of the remainder of the ISS to continue, although he noted
that NASA is re-evaluating those plans at present.

Some 130 schoolchildren, parents, teachers, the city mayor and several
radio amateurs turned out for the occasion.

ARISS is an international program with support from ARRL, NASA and AMSAT.


As expected, NASA has named veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko,
RK3DUP, and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu, KC5WKJ, as the International
Space Station's Expedition 7 primary crew. Malenchenko, 41--who will be
the crew commander--and Lu, 39, will be the first two-person ISS crew
increment and the first primary crew to travel to the space station on a
Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Plans call for an April 26 launch from

Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, U8MIR--originally set to be the third
person on the new crew--and NASA astronaut Mike Foale, KB5UAC, are the
back-up crew members for Expedition 7. All four have been training in

Originally scheduled to return in March aboard the space shuttle Atlantis
STS-114 mission, Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, KD5JBP, Flight
Engineer Nikolai Budarin, RV3FB, and NASA Space Station Science Officer
Don Pettit, KD5MDT, will return to Earth aboard a Soyuz craft in May. They
have been in space since November 23. NASA's shuttle fleet remains on the
ground as the space agency continues to investigate the February 1
Columbia tragedy that claimed the lives of seven astronauts.

The fresh crew will remain in space until October, when a new crew will be
sent up. NASA has said that until the space shuttle returns to
flight-ready status pending the outcome of the Columbia accident
investigation, Russian Soyuz vehicles will handle ISS crew rotations.

ARISS International Chairman Frank Bauer, KA3HDO, has said that despite
the reduction in crew size, NASA has told the ARISS team that it may
continue to schedule one or two ARISS school group contacts per week.
ARISS school contacts typically go on hiatus during a crew changeover,
however. The grounding of the shuttle fleet also means that plans to
transport new ham gear to the ISS will have to be put on hold.


As preparations for this summer's World Radiocommunication Conference 2003
(WRC-03) head into the home stretch, ARRL this week launched a special
WRC-03 campaign <> to help generate the funds
needed to continue the defense of Amateur Radio spectrum. Issues that
affect amateurs, such as the Amateur Radio/International Broadcasting
overlap on 40 meters and the desire of commercial interests to expand
their slices of spectrum are on the table and will be decided.

"While much of what happens at international conferences may seem very far
away to the average ham, the decisions made at WRC-03 will have a dramatic
impact on every ham in the country," said ARRL Chief Development Officer
Mary Hobart, K1MMH. "The totality of these issues is huge for Amateur

Hobart said Amateur Radio needs to present "its best face and voice" to
the various parties and interests that gather for WRC-03 in Geneva. The
new WRC-03 campaign, which is aimed at making that possible, takes a
twofold tack. "We are reaching out to ARRL members by mail and on the Web
to contribute before May 30," she explained. The secure Web site features
a detailed letter <> from
ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ.

"A contribution toward a healthy future for ham radio is just a click or
two away," Hobart noted. Contributors also may mail in donations by check,
if they wish.

Hobart points out that over the last several years, the "relentless
efforts of ARRL in Washington, DC, and at international conferences" have
led to the fund's depletion on the eve of the most important international
radio conference in a decade. She stated that Amateur Radio must have
strength and resolve when ARRL and International Amateur Radio Union
(IARU) <> representatives go to the conference.

"It is only through the continuing efforts of all hams--ARRL members and
non-members alike--that a successful defense and promotion of Amateur
Radio can take place in the face of commercial and governmental parties,
which have very deep pockets," Hobart said.

In his letter, Sumner notes that close to 2000 delegates from nearly every
country in the world will take part in the conference. In addition to the
pressing problem of the overlap at 40 meters, international broadcasters
are claiming they need additional spectrum in the 4 to 10 MHz range--the
top end of 75 meters could be affected.

Sumner adds that satellite-borne radar systems and the so-called "Little
LEO" satellites are also on the WRC-03 agenda, and decisions on these
issues could affect amateur spectrum. In addition, broadband wireless
devices, third-party traffic and the extent to which amateur licensing
standards will be recognized in the international regulations also will be
discussed and adjudicated.

WRC-03 takes place in Geneva June 9 through July 4.


ARRL Technical Information Service Manager Al Alvareztorres, AA1DO, died
unexpectedly March 26 after suffering a heart attack. He was 60.

Hired in 1994 as the weekend W1AW operator, Alvareztorres, an accomplished
Webmaster--moved over to the Lab in 1999 to oversee the TIS. "Al will be
missed in the ARRL Lab," said Lab Supervisor Ed Hare, W1RFI. Hare said
Alvareztorres literally rebuilt the TIS Web pages
<> from the ground up. He also was the driving
force behind the "Doctor Online" Web feature, co-editor of the ARRL Ham
Radio FAQ book and author of a number of QST articles on mobile and
stealth operating.

ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, recalled Alvareztorres as "a quiet, friendly
person who genuinely enjoyed being of service to our members and to his
fellow staff members." Lab colleague Mike Gruber, W1MG, said Alvareztorres
had a great sense of humor that helped make the lab a fun place to work.
"Al was universally well liked," Gruber said.

Born in New York, Alvareztorres grew up in River Edge, New Jersey, where
he was first licensed in 1959 as WV2FGD. As an Air Force recruit, he
traveled the world operating under various call signs. He subsequently
worked in sales, electronics and production control.

Survivors include his mother, Margaret, and a younger brother, Ray.
Memorial service arrangements are pending.


Solar sage Tad "(The Sun is Shining Like a) Red Rubber Ball" Cook, K7RA,
Seattle, Washington, reports: Unsettled geomagnetic conditions continued,
with the average daily planetary A index increasing over the previous
week. Only one day, April 1, was mildly unsettled with the planetary A
index at 12. All other days of the week were more active. But the K index
dropped all the way from five to one over the first six hours of that day
(UTC). You can see the relationship between K and A indices on this NOAA
Web site <>.

The predicted planetary A index for Friday through Monday, April 7 is 10,
12, 12 and 15. Geomagnetic conditions are expected to be active again
April 10-15, with the rougher conditions toward the end of that period.
Solar flux is expected to drift below 150 over the next few days and may
go to a low of around 110 from April 17 until April 21.

Sunspot numbers for March 27 through April 2 were 156, 189, 155, 176, 165,
161 and 189, with a mean of 170.1. The 10.7 cm flux was 141.1, 146.9,
155.1, 154.5, 160.1, 153 and 157.5, with a mean of 152.6. Estimated
planetary A indices were 27, 24, 27, 26, 31, 12 and 20, with a mean of



* This weekend on the radio: The MARAC County Hunters Contest (SSB), the
SP DX Contest, the EA RTTY Contest, the Missouri QSO Party and the QCWA
QSO Party are the weekend of April 5-6. JUST AHEAD: The YLRL DX to NA YL
Contest (CW) is April 9-11. The JIDX CW Contest, the QRP ARCI Spring QSO
Party, the EU Spring Sprint (SSB), the Georgia QSO Party, the 222 MHz
Spring Sprint and the UBA Spring Contest (SSB) are the weekend of April
12-13. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <>
and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Emergency Communications course registration: Registration opens
Monday, April 7, 12:01 AM Eastern Time (0500 UTC), for the on-line Level I
Emergency Communications course (EC-001). Registration remains open
through the April 12-13 weekend or until all available seats have been
filled--whichever comes first. Class begins Tuesday, April 22. Thanks to
the federal homeland security grant from the Corporation for National and
Community Service, the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be
reimbursed after successful completion of the course. During this
registration period, approximately 200 seats are being offered to ARRL
members on a first-come, first-served basis. Senior amateurs are strongly
encouraged to take advantage of this opportunity. To learn more, visit the
ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page
<> and the C-CE Links found there. For more
information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller,
K3UFG,; 860-594-0340.

* ST0RY Sudan operation is QRT: The ST0RY Sudan DXpedition shut down this
week, a bit earlier than expected, after logging more than 49,000 QSOs.
Pilot station, Bernd Koch, DF3CB, says the last QSO was March 31 at 1745
UTC, a bit earlier than expected. "The last news and logs were sent from
an Internet cafe in Khartoum," he said. DF3CB has prepared an online QSL
request form for those seeking ST0RY cards via the bureau. It's available
on the ST0RY Sudan DXpedition Web site <>, which
includes more information and photos. ST0RY was active in the CQ World
Wide WPX SSB contest over the March 29-30 weekend. Demand for ST0RY was
heavy. Most-wanted lists put Sudan in the top 20.--some information from
The Daily DX <>

* Baghdad ham club station dismantled prior to bombing: The Daily DX
<> relays information from Diya Sayah, YI1DZ--one of
the primary operators at the Baghdad Radio Club YI1BGD station in Baghdad.
Sayah reported just prior to the outbreak of hostilities in Iraq that he
had dismantled the YI1BGD station equipment and stored it in a safe
place--if there can be such a location in the besieged capital city at
this point. The Daily DX Editor Bernie McClenny, W3UR, says he doubts
there will be any activity in the near future from YI1BGD "much less any
other YI stations." The YI1BGD club station went on the air in the 1970s.
The Iraqi Association for Radio Amateurs (IARA) remains an International
Amateur Radio Union (IARU) member-society. Its president is Adnan M.
Aswad, YI1DX.

* Cingular Wireless petition cites ARRL Part 15 position: Cingular
Wireless has cited an ARRL position in a recently filed Supplement to
Petition for Reconsideration regarding the FCC's Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
proceeding, ET Docket 98-153. "The fatal flaw associated with unlicensed
operations has already been raised by the American Radio Relay League
(ARRL)," Cingular said. Cingular was referring to the League's February
2002 Petition for Reconsideration in ET Docket 98-156. In that docket, the
FCC proposed allowing Part 15 fixed point-to-point transmitters in the
24.05 to 24.25 GHz band to operate at field strengths of up to 2500 mV per
meter, in response to a Petition for Rule Making from Sierra Digital
Communications Inc. "It would be arbitrary and capricious for the
Commission to permit additional unlicensed operations--such as
UWB--without addressing the statutory basis for such operations," Cingular
continued. The ARRL has maintained that unlicensed devices that pose
likely risk of interference to licensed services should be licensed. The
wireless service provider asserted that under Section 301 of the
Communications Act, "UWB devices require licenses." Cingular argued in its
supplementary petition that operation of UWB devices is likely to be
widespread and unsupervised and that licensed operators will not be able
to identify interfering parties that are non-compliant with the Part 15
rules that regulate unlicensed devices. Concluded Cingular: "The
Commission's authority to permit unlicensed, intentional radiators such as
UWB is therefore non-existent."

* Number of grant-sponsored ARECC grads tops 1000: The number of Level I
ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course (ARECC) graduates who
have benefited from the Corporation for National and Community Service
(CNCS) homeland security grant topped 1000 by the end of March. ARRL
Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG, reports that as
of March 28, 1014 amateurs had completed the Level I (EC-001) course and
qualified for fee reimbursement via the $180,000 CNCS grant to ARRL.
Nearly 1800 amateurs have enrolled for the CNCS-subsidized training.
Senior amateurs are strongly encouraged to take advantage of this
opportunity. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing
Education Web page <> and the C-CE Links found
there. For more information, contact Miller <>;;

* When does a CSCE also confer HF operating authority? Despite the fact
that it expires 365 days after it's issued, a Certificate of Successful
Completion of Examination (CSCE) can confer permanent operating authority
under certain circumstances. When the FCC ceased issuing the Tech Plus
license in April 2000, the issue resurfaced. As most hams know, the FCC's
Amateur Radio Service database no longer distinguishes between Technicians
without code credit and those with code credit. A Tech Plus ticket returns
from renewal stamped simply "Technician," although the database does
indicate "Tech Plus" as the "previous license class" and the new license
document is stamped "License Class Converted per ß97.21(a)(3)"--the
applicable rule--although this same legend does not appear in the FCC
licensee database. According to the FCC, the CSCE a volunteer examiner
team issues to a newer Technician licensee who passes Element 1 now
confers "Tech Plus" HF operating privilege purposes indefinitely and
should be retained as part of one's license document. But--and this is a
big but--the same CSCE cannot be used toward an upgrade beyond its 365-day
lifetime. Applicants who wait more than a year to go after General or
Extra would have to take Element 1 again. More specific information is
available on the ARRL VEC Web site

* YHOTY nominations open: Nominations are open for the Amateur Radio
Newsline Young Ham of the Year Award for 2003. All nominations must be
submitted before May 30 on an official application and accompanied by
verification materials. Created in 1986, the award recognizes one young
radio amateur under the age of 18 in the continental US for his or her
contributions to society through Amateur Radio. Nominating forms and
additional information are available at the Amateur Radio Newsline
<> Web site or by writing 2003 Young Ham of the
Year Award, c/o Newsline, 28197 Robin Ave, Santa Clarita, CA 91350. A Web
site <> is available to file an application
on-line. Josh Abramowicz, KB3GWY, was the 2002 Young Ham of the Year. The
2003 winner will be honored during the Huntsville (Alabama) Hamfest in

* International DX Convention set for May 2-4: The 54th annual
International DX Convention at Visalia, California, is scheduled for May
2-4. The Northern California DX Club will serve as host. QST "How's DX?"
Editor Bernie McClenny, W3UR--publisher of The Daily DX
<>--will be this year's banquet speaker. QSL card
checking for both DXCC and the CQ Worked All Zones (WAZ) programs will be
available. Full information on the International DX Convention is
available on the Web
<>.--The Daily DX

* WQ4L is NAB Radio Engineering Achievement Award winner: The National
Association of Broadcasters (NAB) has announced that ARRL member John
Reiser, WQ4L, of Mt Vernon, Virginia is the winner of its 2003 Radio
Engineering Achievement Award. According to NAB, Reiser, who retired in
2000 as a senior broadcast engineer with the FCC's International Bureau,
played a significant role in many landmark rulings during his 39 years
with the FCC, including the standardization of the FCC national program
for broadcast station inspections in the 1970s, the 1976 revision of the
broadcast rules and regulations and the reorganization of the Broadcast
Bureau into what is now the Media Bureau. "For many years, his extensive
knowledge of the FCC rules and hands-on experience and day-to-day contact
with broadcast stations made him a critical resource to the industry in
helping broadcasters comply with the FCC rules," the NAB said in
announcing the award. NAB award winners will be honored April 9 at the
NAB2003 convention in Las Vegas.

* Boston Marathon still needs ham radio volunteers: The Boston Marathon
still needs Amateur Radio volunteers to assist with communications for
this year's event. The 107th running of the Boston Marathon will take
place on Patriots' Day, Monday, April 21. To volunteer contact Paul
Topolski, W1SEX, <>;; 978-632-9432 or Steve Schwarm, W3EVE,
<>;; 508-384-7697.

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely,
accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <> for
the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site
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columns. ARRL Audio News <> is a
weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled from The ARRL Letter.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to
The ARRL Letter and The American Radio Relay League.

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The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

Much of the ARRL Letter content is also available in audio form in ARRL Audio News.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to The ARRL Letter and The American Radio Relay League.

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