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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 23, No. 12
March 19, 2004


* +BPL comment deadlines set
* +ARRL on-line Technician course debuts
* +NA1SS makes first school group contact with Scotland
* +Hamvention 2004 award winners include past ARRL president
* +Iowa ham club is "Daily Point of Light" for March 29
* +Ice destroys R0PA site; scientists rescued
* +Les Moxon, G6XN, SK
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
     Bogus messages still circulating
     FCC proposes to correct VEC filing errors
     Amateur Radio represented at National Hurricane Conference
     AMSAT-NA Space Symposium and Annual Meeting set

+Available on ARRL Audio News

NOTE: Because of vacation schedules, the March 26 editions of The ARRL
Letter and ARRL Audio News will be distributed Thursday, March 25.


Comments on the FCC Broadband over Power Line (BPL) Notice of Proposed
Rule Making (NPRM) in ET Dockets 03-104 and 04-37 are due by Monday, May
3. The deadline for reply comments--comments on comments filed by
others--is Tuesday, June 1. The ARRL will comment by the deadline on the
FCC's proposals to amend its Part 15 rules to adopt new requirements and
measurement guidelines for so-called "Access BPL" systems that provide
broadband access via electric utility power lines. ARRL CEO David Sumner,
K1ZZ, says the League recommends that members read the NPRM and develop
their own thoughtful, considered comments that specifically address the
FCC's BPL proposals, reflect positively on the amateur community and, if
possible, offer alternative recommendations. He asked amateurs to keep
four things in mind, however.

"First, this is not a proceeding to 'permit' or 'authorize' BPL," he said.
"BPL is already permitted under the existing Part 15 rules."

Second, Sumner pointed out, the NPRM reaffirms that licensed services must
be protected from harmful interference and are not required to protect BPL
systems. "This is good, but we can't take it for granted that the
principle will be honored in practice," he said.

"Third," Sumner went on, "the NPRM proposes additional, new constraints on
BPL to protect licensed services. The FCC did not go far enough, but at
least the proposals aim in the right direction."

Finally, while the League continues to believe firmly that BPL is "a very
bad idea," arguing that the FCC should ban BPL "will not get us anywhere,"
he concluded. Instead, Sumner says, amateurs must document beyond any
doubt the levels of protection that must be given to over-the-air
services, then leave it for others to decide whether BPL is feasible
within those limits. "We need to prove that the risk of interference is
significantly greater than the BPL proponents say it is," Sumner said.

He also asserted that the FCC's proposed "interference mitigation"
requirements fall far short of providing real protection from harmful
interference, and that the Commission is ignoring the practical problems
that will arise when Amateur Radio transmissions disrupt BPL systems.

Carrier current systems like BPL are subject to the FCC's Part 15 rules
governing unlicensed devices, and the FCC has acknowledged that "amateur
operations are likely to present a difficult challenge" to BPL deployment,
especially in the case of hams--an estimated 150,000 of them--who use
high-gain antennas sited near power lines. The proposed rules remain
silent on the issue of mitigating BPL interference to the estimated 70,000
Amateur Radio HF mobile stations.

Interference mitigation for mobile stations "is clearly impractical,"
Sumner asserted. "Since BPL systems operating at the present Part 15 limit
cause harmful interference to mobiles, the only solution is an absolute
limit on radiated emissions that is lower than the present limit." He said
the ARRL was in the process of determining scientifically what the limit
must be.

Sumner further noted that the NPRM does not mandate a publicly accessible
BPL database to facilitate interference mitigation for fixed stations. In
addition, the League wants the FCC to establish performance standards for
BPL interference mitigation. "There must be severe enforcement penalties
for failure to resolve a complaint in real time and for failure to
maintain the database," he said.

The League encourages anyone, particularly radio amateurs, who has
actually experienced BPL interference to file detailed comments
documenting the interference. "BPL proponents claim they are not getting
interference complaints," Sumner noted. "If we let them claim their
systems are 'clean' when we know they aren't, shame on us."

Interested individuals and organizations may file comments via the
Internet, using the FCC's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS)
<>. In an unusual move, the FCC has added
another docket number to the BPL proceeding. That could complicate filing
comments and may lead to some confusion. Although the original FCC BPL
Notice of Inquiry last April bore ET Docket 03-104, the recent BPL NPRM
carries an additional docket number--ET Docket 04-37. The ARRL advises
those posting comments to use the main ECFS page and file their comments
on both proceedings--ET Docket 03-104 and ET Docket 04-37.

When submitting a comment or viewing filed comments, ECFS users should
type "03-104" or "04-37" (without quotation marks but including the
hyphen) in the "Proceeding" field of the ECFS on-line form. Do not use the
NPRM's FCC document number when filing or searching for comments. The ECFS
permits attaching a file containing detailed comments prepared off-line.

ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, will discuss the various implications of
BPL with overnight radio talk show host Art Bell, W6OBB, on the Saturday,
March 20, edition of the syndicated interview and call-in program Coast to
Coast AM <>. Their interview is scheduled to
air during the show's first hour (Sunday, March 21, 0600 UTC). The
toll-free call-in number for Western US listeners is 800-618-8255. For
Eastern US listeners it's 800-825-5033. First-time callers may use
775-727-1222. The "Wild Card Line"--for any caller--is 775-727-1295. The
popular program, distributed by Premiere Radio Networks, airs live nightly
from 10 PM until 2 AM Pacific Time on 430 stations and is available in
every state. It's also available via the Web


Thanks to the League's new on-line Technician Class Course for Ham Radio
Licensing (EC-010) <>, prospective hams
can study for their ticket wherever they can connect to the Internet and
on their own schedule. The course is offered through the ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE) program. Two new classes
will open each month, and students may sign up anytime via the ARRL Web
site <> or by calling the New
Ham Hotline, 800-326-3942. Class sessions begin April 6 and April 20. ARRL
On-line Course Development Coordinator Howard Robins, W1HSR, says the new
on-line Technician course will include everything needed to successfully
pass the examination plus help with getting a foothold in ham radio.

"The on-line approach to learning provides students a way to prepare for
the exam at their own pace over an eight-week period with 24/7 access to
the material," Robins said. The assignment of a very experienced "Elmer"
or mentor to all students is one benefit of the on-line learning method.
Another is a post-graduation on-line support group that's only available
to course graduates. "This group will provide Elmering as the new ham gets
started, as well as help with equipment and antenna questions or anything
pertaining to Amateur Radio," Robins explained.

Steve Ford, WB8IMY, Chuck Hutchinson, K8CH, and Larry Wolfgang, WR1B,
developed the class material. The Technician course takes 20 to 25 hours
to complete, and those finishing the class will take their tests at a
volunteer examiner test session

Believed to be the first on-line Technician licensing class of its kind in
the US, the course will closely follow the popular ARRL license manual Now
You're Talking! The course fee--$99 for ARRL members and $139
non-members--includes a copy of the book. (Regular ARRL membership
<> is $39 per year, which includes QST, the
official journal of ARRL--the national association for Amateur Radio.)

Students taking the class will be introduced to everything from casual
operating to emergency and public service communication and to radio
technology. Students also will learn about the role of radio clubs and of
the ARRL Field Organization. A course syllabus
<> and a list of student
activities <> are on
the C-CE Web site.

The Technician Class Course for Ham Radio Licensing and the virtual ham
radio campus are available through ARRL's partnership with the Connecticut
Distance Learning Consortium, a nonprofit organization that specializes in
developing on-line courses for Connecticut colleges and universities. For
additional details, e-mail


It might have been St Patrick's Day, but the accents of the youngsters
questioning International Space Station Commander Mike Foale, KB5UAC, on
March 17 definitely were Scottish. Nonetheless, the "luck of the Irish"
was with the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS)
contact between the British-born Foale at NA1SS and Nancy Rocheleau,
WH6PN, at Sacred Heart Academy in Honolulu. An MCI teleconference link
provided the two-way audio for pupils at the Sgoil a' Bhac
<>--the School of Back--on the Isle of Lewis
in the Outer Hebrides off Scotland's northwestern coast. Responding to one
question, Foale explained that the ISS crew is not truly "weightless" in

"What's actually happening is that we're all falling together," Foale
explained, pointing out that the space station is continuously falling as
it circles Earth. Because the spacecraft is moving rapidly horizontally,
it misses Earth because of its curve. "So, we're falling around the
earth--all of the things inside the space station are falling," he
continued. "We actually think that we're weightless, but, in fact, the
weight is still there, and gravity is still working on us."

Apparent weightlessness in space has its pros and cons, Foale told the
youngsters in response to another question. "In general, weightlessness
causes problems because nothing stays put," Foale said. "You have to
always have something sticky to hold things down." But, he went on to say,
weightlessness does let the crew store things just about anywhere on the

Foale said he was able to see some features of northern
Scotland--including the Isle of Skye--when the ISS passed over that part
of the world. "Yours is pretty easy to pick out too," he added. As he's
said during past school group QSOs, one of his favorite leisure-time
activities is to look at Earth.

Other planets also were on the minds of the primary and secondary
schoolers who attend the School of Back. The astronaut also told the
Scottish students that he believes scientists may one day discover
evidence of fossilized life on Mars. He also estimated that it would be
"maybe 15 years" before humans are able to land on Mars.

Sgoil a' Bhac has an enrollment of 190--the majority at the primary school
level. Dating back to 1878, the school is committed to Gaelic language and
culture. Foale visited the school last summer.

The School of Back QSO--the first for a school in Scotland--marked the
130th ARISS school group contact since the arrival of the first ISS crew
in late 2000. ARISS <> is an international
educational outreach with participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA.


Hamvention <> has named ARRL President Emeritus
George S. Wilson III, W4OYI, of Owensboro, Kentucky, the recipient of its
2004 Special Achievement Award. The Hamvention Awards Committee selected
Wilson based on his decades of service to Amateur Radio through the ARRL,
his public service and emergency communications work and his determination
to overcome the debilitating effects of a 1995 stroke that left him
partially paralyzed.

A ham since age 16, Wilson--an attorney by profession--has remained active
in Amateur Radio for more than 50 years. The ARRL's 11th president, Wilson
suffered a stroke on February 11, 1995. During his rehabilitation in July
of that year, he stepped down after serving just over three years in the
League's top volunteer position. Wilson's legacy includes a near lifelong
involvement in the League's emergency and public service communications
programs. He remains active in public service and emergency communication,
and he continues his League service as a Great Lakes Division Assistant

Honored with Hamvention 2004's top award--Amateur of the Year--is Dave
Kopacz, KY1V/VP5X, of Hopkinsville, Kentucky. An ARRL member, Kopacz
created and funded a program that gives young hams an opportunity each
year to win an expenses-paid DXpedition trip to North Caicos Island.

"The Awards Committee feels that it is this kind of support for young
people that will assure the future of Amateur Radio," Hamvention's said in
announcing the 2004 award winners.

Kopacz developed the "Young Ham Contest Program" last year, and
14-year-old Daniel Bradke, W2AU, was the first DXpedition trip winner. As
the selected applicant, Bradke operated as part of the VP5X Contest Group
<> for the CQ World Wide CW contest last November. "I
hope to get other hams involved in the program and eventually sponsor kids
for every major contest," he said.

Barry Sanderson, KB9VAK, of Indianapolis has been named as recipient of
the Hamvention 2004 Technical Excellence Award. The Awards Committee
selected Sanderson for developing a multi-channel, multiphase slow-scan
television modulation scheme known as Redundant Digital File Transfer
(RDFT), formerly known as HDSSTV.

"Not only did Sanderson 'do the math,' but he also wrote the core software
routines that allow RDFT to run on personal computers using sound card DSP
capabilities," Hamvention said in its announcement. "This allows
error-free transmission of computer files via standard Amateur Radio
equipment." Sanderson has been a Hamvention forum presenter for the past
three years.

Hamvention 2004 is Friday through Sunday, May 14-16, at Hara Arena near
Dayton, Ohio. Awards will be presented at a recognition program Saturday,
May 15.


The Points of Light Foundation & Volunteer Center National Network
<> has designated The Tri-State Amateur Radio
Club (TSARC) <> of Cresco, Iowa, as the Daily
Point of Light for Monday, March 29. The Foundation recognized the
ARRL-affiliated club for voluntarily providing communication during
emergencies and for supporting Red Cross and The Salvation Army relief
efforts. President George W. Bush and former President George H. W. Bush,
have endorsed the Daily Points of Light Award, and each will send a
congratulatory letter to the club.

"Through your service you join the ranks of America's true unsung
heroes--volunteers," said Points of Light Foundation President and CEO Bob
Goodwin. "The spirit and energy of America's volunteers inspire us all,"
he said. "Your work is a shining example of this spirit."

TSARC's designation as a Daily Point of Light did not escape the notice of
ABC Radio Networks' commentator Paul Harvey <>,
who mentioned it during his noontime broadcast on March 12. Harvey said
the nation still relies on Amateur Radio operators to get the message
through in an emergency or disaster.

"For all of our sophisticated technology, in any real disaster, our
country still relies heavily on its hams--Amateur Radio hobbyists," Harvey
said in the approximately one-minute spot. Among citizen volunteers in the
US, he concluded, there are "none more unsung and certainly none more
unpaid, than the hams--standing by around the clock."

TSARC's Ernie Martin, WA0AUU, said it marked the first Point of Light
Award to an Amateur Radio club. TSARC serves as a Community Emergency
Response Team (CERT) <>--a
Citizen Corps program. A small club with just over a dozen members, TSARC
still has managed to equip itself with two mobile emergency communication
units and even a couple of parasail units--used in search-and-rescue work.

While the club is in Iowa, its "tri-state" label derives from the fact
that it serves parts of Minnesota and Wisconsin as well. The TSARC
communications van--which the club resurrected from an aged auto junkyard
candidate--contains equipment for both Amateur Radio and public safety
frequencies. The unit can even beam a UHF Amateur TV signal from a
disaster scene to a remote post--giving incident command personnel a
firsthand look at what's happening.

In 2002, TSARC was the beneficiary of a $1500 ARRL Foundation
<> grant to assist its emergency communication
efforts. The money helped to supplement the club's own fund-raising
efforts toward covering the approximately $6500 cost of a 16-foot
equipment trailer. Martin says TSARC's communications trailer is packed
with everything the participating amateurs will need when they get to a
disaster site. "We take everything five people will need for five days,"
he said.

The Daily Point of Light Award is given by The Points of Light Foundation
& Volunteer Center National Network in partnership with the Knights of
Columbus and the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS)
<>, which currently subsidizes ARRL Amateur Radio
Emergency Communications course <> training. The
Award honors individuals and organizations "who have made a commitment to
connect Americans through service to help meet critical needs in their
communities and in the nation."


A dozen Russian scientists were rescued March 6 from an Arctic research
station near the North Pole that was nearly destroyed by what's being
described as "a freak wall of ice." The North Pole Drifting Station SP-32
had been the site of the R0PA Amateur Radio operation.

Russian news media said helicopter teams facing frigid sub-zero conditions
managed to reach the stranded researchers and saved all 12 explorers and
two dogs. Hams around the world have reported working R0PA, for which
DL5EBE is listed as QSL manager. The station's researchers reportedly were
unharmed after being forced to huddle for three days in the remains of the
outpost, some 450 miles from the nearest solid ground.

According to Russian TV reports, a wall of ice pushed up from the
surrounding ice floe March 3. Little now remains of the scientific and
educational facility, set up last April by the non-profit Center Pole
organization with support from the Russian government and the Russian
Academy of Sciences. It had been expected to remain in operation for
several years.

Information on SP-32 is available on the Polus Arctic and Antarctic
Expedition Centre Web site


Leslie A. "Les" Moxon, G6XN, of Surrey, England, died March 3. He was 95
and among the oldest Amateur Radio operators in the UK. Licensed in 1928,
Moxon was well-known among the amateur community for his writings on
antennas, in particular his 1982 book HF Antennas for All Locations, now
in its second edition. ARRL antenna specialist Dean Straw, N6BV, called
Moxon a "radio pioneer" and said he'd been a fan of his work for years.

"His insights into the effects of terrain were one of the factors that got
me interested years ago in this aspect of HF radio work," Straw said.
During World War II Moxon was involved in top-secret work to develop
radar. He worked for the government as a radio specialist after the war,
retiring in 1969.

ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, said Moxon's book "set the standard for
practical antenna books and remains a classic."

Moxon's son, David, recalls that his father's gardens grew antennas the
way others grew plants and shrubs, and a new antenna design was always
taking shape. "He always liked to live on the top of a hill--good for
propagation of radio waves," he said. "And when moving to their final
house in Hindhead, real estate agents were bemused to be asked about 'the
long path to Australia.'"

Moxon authored a July 1952 QST article, "Two-Element Driven Arrays."
Several other of his articles appeared during the 1970s and 1980s in Ham
Radio magazine. "A 6 Meter Moxon Antenna" by Allen Baker, KG4JJH, is among
the antenna articles featured in April 2004 QST.

In later years, Moxon developed an interest in theology, and he was not
active on the air in the months prior to his death. A service was held
March 10. Survivors include his wife Nancy and his son.


Ra the Sun god Tad "Sunny Boy" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports:
Average daily sunspot numbers rose nearly 13 points March 11-17 to 66.1.
Average daily solar flux rose by a negligible amount from 106.3 to 106.8.
A solar wind stream caused geomagnetic disturbance from the last reporting
week into the early part of this week, but conditions quieted. Mildly
unsettled conditions may return over the weekend, with Friday through
Monday, March 19-22, planetary A index predicted at 8, 12, 15 and 10.
Solar flux is expected to moderately peak this weekend around 120 on both
March 19 and 20, then 115 and 110 on March 21 and 22.

Remember that huge solar flare that occurred last November 4? Estimated at
the time as an X28 flare, it now appears to have been more than twice as
large as the previous record and has been adjusted upward to X45. See the
report "Sun's massive explosion updated" on the BBC News Word Edition Web
site <>.

Sunspot numbers for March 11 through 17 were 67, 71, 61, 61, 49, 53 and
101, with a mean of 66.1. The 10.7 cm flux was 113.2, 107.5, 103.8, 102.5,
101.4, 109.6 and 109.8, with a mean of 106.8. Estimated planetary A
indices were 26, 23, 15, 16, 13, 8 and 6, with a mean of 15.3.



* This weekend on the radio: The RSGB 80 Meter Club Championship (SSB) is
March 18. The Virginia QSO Party, the 10-10 International Mobile Contest,
the BARTG Spring RTTY Contest, the SARL VHF/UHF Contest, the Russian DX
Contest, the AGCW VHF/UHF Contest, the CLARA and Family HF Contest, the
UBA Spring Contest (6 M), the 9K 15-Meter Contest, the Spring QRP
Homebrewer Sprint are the weekend of March 20-21. JUST AHEAD: The CQ World
Wide WPX Contest (SSB), the Spring Break RTTY Sprint. and the UBA Spring
Contest (2 meters) are the weekend of March 27-28. See the ARRL Contest
Branch page <> and the WA7BNM Contest
Calendar <> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the ARRL VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) and HF
Digital Communication (EC-005) courses remains open through Sunday, March
21. Classes begin Tuesday March 30. Registration for the ARRL Radio
Frequency Interference (EC-006), Antenna Design and Construction (EC-009)
and the Technician Class for Ham Radio Licensing (EC-010) courses is open
through Sunday, March 28. Classes begin Tuesday April 6. Students taking
Radio Frequency Interference (EC-006) will learn how to identify and take
steps to cure various kinds of interference. Antenna Design and
Construction (EC-009) covers basic antenna theory and practical
construction techniques. With the assistance of a mentor students in the
Technician Licensing course will learn everything they need to learn to
pass the FCC Technician license class test. To learn more, visit the ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education Web page
<>. For more information, contact Certification
and Continuing Education Program Department,

* Bogus messages still circulating: E-mail messages purporting to
be from the ARRL E-Mail Forwarding Service
<>, "The team" or
some variation continue to show up in members' inboxes. The messages,
which often carry a subject line along the lines of "Warning about your
e-mail account," indicate that the recipient's ARRL E-Mail Forwarding
Service <call sign> address will be closed within three days
because of an alleged violation of acceptable practices. These messages
are false and did not come from The ARRL Forwarding Service. They are the
result of one of the variants on a number of viruses now permeating the
Internet. A file usually is attached to these messages. As always, do not
open any attachments that you cannot identify. Opening the file could
result in your computer being infected by a virus. This is only one of the
several virus-laden messages currently propagating across the Internet.
The ARRL advises its members to be cautious in opening any message and/or
attachment, even if it appears to be from someone you know. All of these
viruses use e-mail addresses from the address book of an infected computer
to falsify the "From:" address in the header to make it appear that the
message is from someone the recipient knows.

* FCC proposes to correct VEC filing errors: The FCC plans to correct
inadvertent filing errors on the part of Volunteer Examiner Coordinators
(VECs). In a Memorandum Opinion and Order (MO&O) released March 4, the FCC
said it would reinstate the former call sign of Clifford S. Zipnick of
Boynton Beach, Florida. A Technician class operator, Zipnick now holds
KI4BSJ, a call sign issued in response to an application filed via the
ARRL-VEC that erroneously asked the FCC to assign Zipnick the next
available sequential call sign. Zipnick says he only wanted to modify his
mailing address, not request a new call sign. The FCC has proposed to
modify Zipnick's license to reflect his original call sign, KE4FGA. In
another MO&O released March 4, the FCC has proposed modifying the license
of Robert W. Rhodes, KG4RTN, of Hixson, Tennessee, from General to
Technician class. Following a volunteer examination session in which
Rhodes was an examinee, the Western Carolina Amateur Radio Society VEC
(WCARS VEC) inadvertently filed an application indicating that Rhodes had
qualified for General. It later realized that Rhodes had passed Element 3,
the written exam, but not Element 1, the 5 WPM Morse code exam. WCARS VEC
notified the FCC of the error. Unless Rhodes protests within 30 days, the
FCC said it will issue a modification order to return his license to
Technician class. The FCC blamed the situation on "an error made in
reviewing the license examination data," and not on any wrongdoing by

* Amateur Radio represented at National Hurricane Conference: The 26th
annual National Hurricane Conference <>
this year will again feature a training session involving Amateur Radio.
The National Hurricane Conference is the nation's forum for education and
professional training in hurricane preparedness, and programs are
scheduled April 5-9. The Amateur Radio session will be Tuesday, April 6,
at the Wyndham Palace Resort and Spa in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. Amateur
Radio operators may attend the Amateur Radio session at no charge and
without registering for the full conference. ARRL section leadership from
Northern Florida, Southern Florida and West Central Florida will be among
the guest speakers to explore the role of Amateur Radio in hurricane
communications. Representatives from WX4NHC, the Amateur Radio Station at
the National Hurricane Center, and the Hurricane Watch Net will be on
hand. ARRL Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG, will
represent the League at the session, and, for the first time, an ARRL
Amateur Radio booth will be included with other displays. Thanks to ARRL's
grant from the Corporation for National and Community Service, hams will
be present to answer questions and provide information about the benefits
of Amateur Radio, with a focus on emergency communications.

* AMSAT-NA Space Symposium and Annual Meeting set: The 22nd annual
AMSAT-NA Space Symposium and Annual Meeting will take place October 8-10,
2004, at the Crowne Plaza Hotel in Arlington, Virginia. Additional details
will be available on the AMSAT-NA Web site <>.

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely,
accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <> for
the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site
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weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled from The ARRL Letter.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to
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The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

Much of the ARRL Letter content is also available in audio form in ARRL Audio News.

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