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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 23, No. 21
May 21, 2004


* +ARRL delegation visits the White House to discuss BPL
* +Spectrum Protection bill cosponsors top 100
* +Rocket carrying ham radio avionics reaches space
* +BPL official discounts NTIA study in House hearing
* +Number of ham radio enforcement cases dropping
* +ARRL legend Byron H. Goodman, W1DX, SK
* +Headquarters staff members aid Iraqi pupils
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
     ARRL Emergency Communications course registration
     ARRL to sponsor Emergency Communications seminar in Connecticut
     Eight section managers returned to office
     Hams in Northern Virginia support airport disaster drill
     NASA names new supercomputer after lost Columbia ham-astronaut
     Submarine-based ham station to be on the air

+Available on ARRL Audio News



ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, headed an ARRL delegation during a May
20 White House visit to discuss concerns about broadband over power line
(BPL). Haynie, ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, and Chief
Technology Officer Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, met with Richard Russell, the White
House associate director for technology in the Office of Science and
Technology Policy. The ARRL officials asked the Bush administration to
heed its own experts at the National Telecommunications and Information
Administration (NTIA) and back away from its support of BPL in favor of
less troublesome technologies. The NTIA's Phase 1 BPL study acknowledged
BPL as an interference source. Haynie said the meeting was both revealing
and encouraging.

"He assured us that based on the NTIA report, the interference issues
would be addressed," Haynie said. "That was one of our main purposes for
being there." Haynie said, however, that he remains "absolutely" convinced
that a political agenda is driving the BPL proceeding. Russell told the
ARRL contingent that the administration is "very excited" about BPL and is
committed to finding ways to make it work.

Imlay said the League's problems were not with broadband access but with
the "rush-to-judgment" approach the FCC seems to be taking in the BPL
proceeding. As one example, he cited the timing between the release of the
extensive NTIA study and the comment deadline on the BPL proceeding just a
few days later. The Commission denied requests from the ARRL and others to
extend the comment deadline. While somewhat sympathetic, Russell suggested
that his office was in less of a position to influence the FCC than it was
the NTIA.

After Rinaldo presented some of the ARRL's BPL interference test findings,
Russell asked the League to provide a breakdown of the BPL systems and
providers manifesting both lesser and greater degrees of interference.

Rinaldo also told Russell that representatives of the BPL industry have
been double-talking their way around interference claims. Imlay pointed
out that the FCC has yet to address dozens of BPL-related interference
complaints from amateurs.

The administration does not want a flawed technology to result from the
BPL proceeding, Russell said at the session's conclusion, and he offered
assurances to the League visitors that the NTIA would work to address the

"We did get listened to," Haynie said afterward. "Did I leave there
feeling euphoric? No, I didn't, but at least I have a better feeling now
of the overall big picture, of where BPL's coming from, and I hope that I
can take to the bank the fact that they're going to address and continue
to address aggressively the interference issues."

Derek Riker, KB3JLF, of Chwat & Company, the ARRL's legislative relations
consultant, arranged the meeting and accompanied the delegation on the
White House visit.

The ARRL already has asked the FCC to put its BPL proceeding on hold to
allow more thorough research of its interference potential. The League
contended in its comments on the February 23 Notice of Proposed Rule
Making in ET Docket 03-47 that the FCC's "overly aggressive timetable" to
proceed with BPL deployment will effectively preclude the development of
cooperative interference avoidance and resolution mechanisms.


The number of US House members from both sides of the aisle signed on as
cosponsors of the Amateur Radio Spectrum Protection Act of 2003--HR
713--has topped the century mark. The recent addition of three Republicans
and three Democrats pushed the count to 103. Identical House and Senate
versions of the measure, an ARRL initiative, are on their third try in
Congress. Since January 1, the number of HR 713 cosponsors has grown by
26. The Senate version, S 537, has eight cosponsors.

The Spectrum Protection Act bills would require the FCC to provide
"equivalent replacement spectrum" to Amateur Radio if the Commission were
to reallocate primary amateur frequencies, reduce any secondary amateur
allocations, or make additional allocations within such bands that would
substantially reduce their utility to amateurs.

Signing aboard HR 713 so far this month were representatives Jo Ann Davis
(R-VA), Johnny Isakson (R-GA), Elijah Cummings (D-MD), C. A. "Dutch"
Ruppersberger (D-MD), Jim Gerlach (R-PA), and Mike Thompson (D-CA).
Florida Republican Michael Bilirakis sponsored the House bill, while Idaho
Republican Michael Crapo introduced S 537.

Ruppersberger this month also became the 35th cosponsor of HR 1478, the
Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency Act of 2003--the
so-called CC&R bill. Sponsored by New York Democrat Steve Israel, the CC&R
bill would require private land-use regulators such as homeowners'
associations to "reasonably accommodate" Amateur Radio antennas consistent
with the PRB-1 limited federal preemption.

HR 713 and HR 1478 have been referred to the House Subcommittee on
Telecommunications and the Internet. S 537 has been referred to the Senate
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, reiterated that the key to passage of
the measures is letters from constituents. He called upon League members
to take the effort to write, call or e-mail their representatives and
senators to explain the bills' importance and encourage them to consider
cosponsoring the measures. "Letters from ARRL members--who also are
voters--are crucial to getting the spectrum bills through Congress, and
that won't happen without support from our members," he said.

Sample letters and additional information--including the bills' texts and
information on how to write members of Congress--is on the ARRL's "The
Amateur Radio Spectrum Protection Act of 2003" Web page
<> and on the "HR 1478, The
Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency Act of 2003" Web page

Those writing their lawmakers on behalf of the Spectrum Protection Act are
asked to copy their correspondence to the League via e-mail
<>;. Those writing on behalf of the Amateur Radio
Emergency Communications Consistency Act, HR 1478, are asked to copy their
correspondence to <>;.


Following its May 17 launch from Nevada's Black Rock Desert, a solid-fuel
amateur rocket carrying a ham radio avionics package easily exceeded its
primary goal of attaining an altitude of 100 km--62 miles--considered the
boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space, its sponsors say. An
Amateur Radio direction finding team later recovered the rocket's avionics
package intact. Avionics Team Leader Eric Knight, KB1EHE, told ARRL that
the 21-foot, 10-inch diameter Civilian Space Xploration Team (CSXT)
<> GoFast vehicle reached an altitude of 77
miles according to its onboard instruments, making it the first civilian
rocket to do so.

"We well shattered any definition of space, and everybody's jubilant
here," Knight told ARRL from Nevada. "Within two seconds into the flight
we were already supersonic." An ARRL member, Knight said 75 to 100
people--many of them radio amateurs--witnessed the launch, and some asked
how they could become licensed. The launch itself, Knight reported, "went
like clockwork."

During the vehicle's descent to Earth, a ballistic parachute deployed to
keep it from tumbling, slow its velocity and make it hit the ground nose
first. "The avionics package looks pristine," Knight said. "It could fly
again." That's not likely however, since the CSXT team is hoping the
avionics will end up in the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.

A volunteer aerospace tracking and recovery team of Silicon Valley Amateur
Radio operators calling itself Stratofox <> zeroed
in on signals from the fallen rocket, which came down in rugged,
mountainous terrain some 25 miles from the launch site. Tiny bird-tracking
transmitters operating in the 224-MHz range were embedded into the
parachute shroud lines solely for tracking purposes.

The avionics team's homebuilt patch-type antennas served the 33-cm
telemetry downlink and 2.4 GHz Amateur TV transmitters as well as the
onboard GPS units. The color ATV system was able to provide some photos
during the first several seconds of the flight, but Knight said the
rocket's spin--about nine cycles per second--caused the video to blur
after that.

The avionics team includes eight Amateur Radio licensees, most of whom
also were involved in an unsuccessful 2002 CSXT launch attempt. The entire
18-member CSXT team is headed by CSXT founder and Program Director Ky
Michaelson, a retired Hollywood stunt man.

The United Kingdom Rocketry Association this week conveyed congratulations
to the US team. "It's certainly a major achievement," said John Bonsor, a
UKRA founder.


A BPL industry witness this week told a House Subcommittee on
Telecommunications and the Internet hearing that the extensive National
Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) broadband over
power line interference study draws "generalized conclusions," some of
which are "inaccurate." Jay Birnbaum, vice president and general counsel
of BPL provider Current Communications Group LLC
<> was among those answering lawmakers'
questions during the May 19 hearing, "Competition in the Communications
Marketplace: How Convergence Is Blurring the Lines Between Voice, Video,
and Data Services." ARRL CEO David Sumner called it "interesting" that a
BPL spokesperson would try to downplay the significance of the NTIA's

"Clearly, the report has the BPL industry worried--as well it should,"
Sumner said. "Anyone who gets past the introduction and actually reads the
body of the NTIA study can only conclude that NTIA's findings are
devastating to the case for BPL."

Among other observations, the NTIA acknowledged that BPL signals
"unintentionally radiate" from power lines, but said there's "substantial
disagreement as to the strength of the emissions and their potential for
causing interference to licensed radio systems."

The subcommittee members questioning Birnbaum included Oregon Republican
Greg Walden, W7EQI, one of two amateur licensees in the US House. Walden
asked Birnbaum to address the BPL interference issues that the NTIA report
and the amateur community have raised.

Birnbaum responded that he thinks interference concerns about BPL are
unfounded and that the FCC agrees. BPL emissions from power lines, he
asserted, are at very low levels and dissipate very quickly with distance.
Current Technologies is field testing a BPL system in Potomac, Maryland
and has a 50-50 partnership with Cinergy to deploy a full-blown BPL system
in the Cincinnati area. The Maryland system employs the HomePlug Alliance
standard, which notches all HF amateur bands except 60 meters.

The ARRL documented a visit to the Potomac test area on its Web site
<>. The Potomac site is
identified as "Trial Area #1" under "Video showing results of ARRL testing
in MD, VA, PA and NY." BPL interference heard outside amateur bands at the
Potomac site sounds like severe, irregular pulse-type noise.

Birnbaum also told Walden that BPL is "literally undetectable" tens of
meters away, although he indicated that there's disagreement on the issue.
Walden said he just wants the interference addressed
technically--"especially driving under power lines."

The NTIA, which conducted measurements at three different BPL field trial
sites, said that while radiated power "decreased with increasing
distance," the decay was not always predictable. At one measurement
location with a number of BPL devices, the NTIA said, "appreciable BPL
signal levels (ie, at least 5 dB higher than ambient noise) were observed
beyond 500 meters from the nearest BPL-energized power lines."

The NTIA study further calculated that interference "is likely" to mobile
stations in areas extending to 30 meters and to fixed stations in areas
extending to 55 meters from a single BPL device and the power lines to
which it's connected. Interference to systems with "low to moderate
desired signal levels," such as those common in ham radio, is likely
within areas extending to 75 meters for mobiles and 460 meters for fixed
stations, the NTIA study said.

Responding to a question from New Hampshire Republican Charles Bass,
Birnbaum said the BPL industry would be pleased if Congress could provide
tax or financial incentives, especially for improving the power grid.

Birnbaum suggested that while utilities have been slow to act on BPL, they
will begin to deploy BPL systems over the next year or two. The biggest
issue, he said, is the incentive for utilities to invest in broadband


The number of Amateur Radio enforcement cases has continued to drop since
a five-year peak of 350 in 2001. FCC Special Counsel for Enforcement Riley
Hollingsworth told the Dayton Hamvention 2004 FCC Forum May 15 that 240
ham radio enforcement cases crossed his desk last year. As his tenure in
amateur enforcement enters its sixth year, he's estimating only 175 cases
in 2004.

"Two years ago at Dayton, I said that I hoped the day would come soon when
enforcement would not be an issue in the Amateur Service," Hollingsworth
said. While he doesn't believe amateur enforcement is in "maintenance
mode" yet, it's well on its way, he said. But he urged his audience not to
become complacent just because there's active FCC Amateur Service
enforcement. Although the percentage of "hard-core" cases is very small
and rapidly declining, the remaining cases include "some real nasty ones,"
he said.

Hollingsworth said his main worry remains inappropriate or illegal
on-the-air behavior and the sometimes-negative image it can present to
decision makers at a time of broadband over power line (BPL) and other
threats to amateur spectrum. He proposed that amateurs concentrate on
improving how they conduct themselves on the air while letting him deal
with the remaining bad apples that require his attention.

"No enforcement program in the world can save certain people from
themselves or from being an embarrassment to the entire service," he
said--reiterating a refrain that's now almost become his mantra. "If
anything is the downfall of Amateur Radio, it will probably be the
microphone. You have to focus on your image--what you sound like--all the

Hollingsworth also told the forum he's convinced that further Amateur
Service restructuring is a necessity. He also suggested that amateurs be
less concerned about any perceived "dumbing down" of the licensing
requirements, because ham radio will continue to thrive in any event.
"It's not really what you do to get into Amateur Radio that counts. It's
what you do once you get on the air," he said.


Byron H. "By" Goodman, W1DX (ex-W6CAL, W1JPE), of East Hartford,
Connecticut, died May 11 after a period of declining health. He was 93. A
San Francisco native, Goodman was a member of the ARRL Headquarters staff
for more than three decades, most of that time serving as a technical
editor. Goodman authored and edited literally hundreds of QST articles and
columns as well as other League publications, including The Handbook for
Radio Amateurs. Former ARRL colleague and retired ARRL General Manager
Dick Baldwin, W1RU (ex-W1IKE), best remembers Goodman for his pioneering
efforts in SSB and for technical expertise. First licensed in 1930,
Goodman joined the ARRL Headquarters staff a few years later.

"He was a man of many talents," Baldwin said. "He was in the forefront
technically--antennas, receivers, single sideband." He said the technical
challenge spurred Goodman's strong interest in SSB. Goodman initiated a
series of columns about single sideband in QST in 1948--a decade or more
before the mode eventually eclipsed AM.

Over the years, Goodman wrote numerous reviews of new equipment in QST,
served as the first "How's DX?" editor from 1936 until 1947 and edited a
column of International Amateur Radio Union news. While the author's
identity was not widely known outside of the ARRL Headquarters family,
Goodman wrote a series of QST April Fool parodies under the pseudonym
Larson E. Rapp, WIOU.

"By had a very great sense of humor, a very dry sense of humor," said
former colleague George Hart, W1NJM.

In 1989, Goodman received the Dayton Hamvention's Technical Excellence
Award. He belonged to the ARRL, the Quarter Century Wireless Association
and the A1 Operator Club. He was not active on the air in recent years,

Survivors include Goodman's wife, Barbara, a daughter and a sister. The
family invites memorial donations to the American Heart Association, 2550
US Rte 1, North Brunswick, NJ 08902-4301.


Fourteen large boxes filled with school supplies, books and toys are on
their way to needy schoolchildren in Northern Iraq, thanks to the generous
spirit of ARRL Headquarters staff members.

Packages of pencils, paper, pens, crayons and other school supplies were
shipped out of the ARRL warehouse, paid for with a private anonymous
donation. ARRL Sales and Marketing Manager Dennis Motschenbacher, K7BV,
spearheaded the Headquarters effort. His nephew, 2nd Lt Niles
Motschenbacher, is serving with a US Army unit near the city of Mosul.

One of Niles Motschenbacher's jobs is regularly touring the schools. "He
said he was shocked the first time he went into a school building and
found 100 kids in a single room, sitting on the floor and sharing a few
pencils," his uncle said.

Niles Motschenbacher wrote his sister Anna to ask if she could put the
word out to the family--their mother is an elementary school teacher--to
gather up a few school supplies and send them to him in Iraq.

"When I got Anna's note, I thought of the people here at ARRL Headquarters
and how generous they are," Dennis Motschenbacher said. He put up flyers
on bulletin boards and set up a donation box. "I was stunned to see all of
the things that came in, much of it new materials."

ARRL Administrative Assistant to the CEO Lisa Kustosik, KA1UFZ, donated a
small mountain of toys to the shipment. "It's important for children to
have time for other things beside school books," she said. "Toys let kids
be kids, no matter where they are in the world."


Sun watcher Tad "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me" Cook, K7RA, Seattle,
Washington, reports: Solar flux values and sunspot numbers moved higher
over the past week. Average daily sunspot numbers rose nearly 65 points to
113.6. Average solar flux rose more than 18 points. The sunspot number
reached a peak of 148 Sunday, May 16.

We are currently within a weak stream of solar wind from a coronal hole,
so some resulting geomagnetic activity is possible. The predicted
planetary A index for May 21-24 is 15, 15, 12 and 10. Solar flux should
stay around 100 during the next week. Seasonal noise levels should begin
to rise as well.

Sunspot numbers for May 13 through 19 were 107, 98, 117, 148, 147, 91 and
87, with a mean of 113.6. The 10.7 cm flux was 100.8, 109.6, 115.3, 118.3,
111.1, 107.8 and 108.8, with a mean of 110.2. Estimated planetary A
indices were 13, 8, 9, 4, 5, 4 and 6, with a mean of 7. Estimated
mid-latitude A indices were 17, 4, 7, 4, 3, 4 and 6, with a mean of 6.4.



* This weekend on the radio: The 2 GHz and Up Contest, the VK/Trans-Tasman
80-Meter Contest (phone) the EU PSK DX Contest and the Baltic Contest are
the weekend of May 22-23. JUST AHEAD: AGCW Activity Week is May 24-28. The
CQ WW WPX Contest (CW), the Great Lakes QSO Party and the ARCI Hootowl
Sprint are the weekend of May 29-30. The MI QRP Memorial Day CW Sprint is
May 31-June 1. See the ARRL Contest Branch page
<> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Emergency Communications course registration: Registration for the
ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level III on-line course
(EC-003) remains open through the May 22-23 weekend or until all available
seats have been filled--whichever comes first. Class begins Tuesday, June
1. Thanks to our grant sponsors--the Corporation for National and
Community Service and the United Technologies Corporation--the $45
registration fee paid upon enrollment will be reimbursed after successful
completion of the course. During this registration period, approximately
50 seats are being offered to ARRL members on a first-come, first-served
basis. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing
Education (C-CE) Web page <>. For more
information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller,
K3UFG,; 860-594-0340.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the ARRL HF Digital Communication (EC-005), ARRL
VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) and ARRL Technician Licensing
(EC-010) courses remains open through Sunday, May 23. Classes begin
Tuesday, June 1. Students participating in VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater
(EC-008) will enjoy exploring some of the lesser-used and more intriguing
aspects of VHF/UHF operation. HF Digital Communication students will learn
to use a variety of HF digital modes. With the assistance of a mentor,
students in Technician Licensing (EC-010) will learn everything they need
to know to pass the FCC Technician class Amateur Radio license
examination. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing
Education (C-CE) Web page <> or contact the ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education Program Department <>;.

* ARRL to sponsor Emergency Communications seminar in Connecticut: The
ARRL will offer a free Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course
(ARECC) seminar Saturday, June 12, in conjunction with the Newington
Amateur Radio League Hamfest Weekend. The seminar will be held from 12
noon until 4 PM at ARRL Headquarters, 225 Main Street, Newington,
Connecticut and is open to all interested hams. The seminar will not
include the Level I course itself. A PowerPoint presentation will include
background information, group discussion of multiple disaster scenarios,
comments from emergency communications leadership, ARECC mentors and
students, discussion about the ARRL Amateur Radio emergency communications
courses, the status of our federal grant from the Corporation for National
and Community Service (CNCS) and the grant from our corporate partner
United Technologies Corporation, updates on emergency communications tools
being developed nationally and a quiz to determine personal preparedness.
Senior citizens are strongly encouraged to participate. All ARES/RACES
volunteers, ARECC course participants at every level, and ARRL Field
Organization leadership are welcome. Course participants are invited to
share their experiences. Field Organization Leadership--SMs, SECs, DECs
and ECs--are encouraged to brainstorm ideas to motivate volunteers and
coordinate activities. Attendees will receive handouts and be eligible for
a prize drawing. Seating is limited. Anyone planning to attend should
contact Dan Miller, K3UFG, <>;; 860-594-0340; FAX
860-594-0259. For more information on the NARL 2004 Hamfest Weekend, visit
the NARL Web site <>.

* Eight section managers returned to office: Oregon Section Manager Randy
Stimson, KZ7T, overcame a challenge from Kevin Hunt, WA7VTD, 549 to 461
votes. ARRL Field and Educational Services staffers counted the ballots
and verified the results May 18 at League Headquarters. A veteran ARRL
Field Organization leader who previously served as Oregon SM from 1987
until 1998, Stimson, of Beaverton, accepted appointment as SM last July
after Oregon Section ARRL members voted to recall then-SM Marshall
Johnson, KK7CW. Seven other sitting ARRL SMs faced no opposition in this
election cycle and were declared re-elected. They are Sharon Harlan, N9SH,
Illinois; Jim Sellers, K9ZBM, Indiana; Bill Woodhead, N1KAT, Maine; Rudy
Hubbard, WA4PUP, Northern Florida; Glenn Thomas, WB6W, Santa Clara Valley;
Paul Gayet, AA1SU, Vermont, and Don Michalski, W9IXG, Wisconsin. New
two-year terms of office began July 1, 2004.

* Correction: A news brief, "FCC designates former amateur's latest GMRS
application for hearing" appearing in The ARRL Letter, Vol 23, No 18, (Apr
30, 2004) contained erroneous information regarding the identity of the
applicant. The FCC has advised ARRL that the Richard A. Burton of Wyoming,
who applied to the FCC for a GMRS license, was not Richard Allen Burton,
ex-WB6JAC, of California. Acting on the belief that the application had
come from the latter Burton, the FCC mistakenly designated it for hearing,
based on the former amateur's lengthy enforcement history with the FCC.
Richard Allen Burton of California had filed for a GMRS license last year
but subsequently withdrew his application.

* Hams in Northern Virginia support airport disaster drill: After months
of planning and preparation, more than 100 Amateur Radio Emergency Service
(ARES) volunteer from Northern Virginia's Fairfax, Prince William and
Loudoun counties provided emergency communication support May 8 for a mock
disaster drill at Dulles International Airport near Washington, DC. The
drill scenario consisted of an airplane crash with a fire and included
treatment--at the "crash site" and at several area hospitals--and
transport of simulated victims. The ARES volunteers set up several
portable repeaters on and around the airport grounds to provide
communications among agencies attending the crash site, those transporting
the injured and participating hospitals. The volunteer radio operators
also provided a live Amateur TV link between the crash site and the
airport operations center--allowing airport management to monitor the
drill's progress. Handheld transceiver-equipped amateurs shadowed selected
officials at the crash site to provide instant communications to other
temporary operational areas on and around the airport. Amateur Radio
volunteers also accompanied the buses transporting ambulatory "victims" to
local hospitals, providing voice communications and real-time position
data via the Automatic Position Reporting System. Additional ARES members
deployed to 10 area hospitals to help coordinate the arrival and departure
of simulated victims.--Larry Hughes, K3HE

* NASA names new supercomputer after lost Columbia ham-astronaut: NASA
will dedicate a new supercomputer in memory of Kalpana "KC" Chawla,
KD5ESI. She was one of the seven shuttle Columbia STS-107 mission crew
members lost February 1, 2003, as the vehicle was returning to Earth. The
May 12 dedication ceremony was held at NASA Ames Research Center in
California. The first Indian-born woman to fly in space, Chawla served as
a flight engineer and mission specialist aboard Columbia. NASA's naming of
the new "Kalpana" supercomputer follows a long tradition at the research
center of naming its new supercomputers after pioneers in the
supercomputer industry or others in recognition of their achievements. The
Columbia STS-107 crew, headed by Commander Rick Husband, also included
Pilot Willie McCool and Mission Specialists David Brown, KC5ZTC; Laurel
Clark, KC5ZSU; Michael Anderson and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, the
first Israeli astronaut.

* Submarine-based ham station to be on the air: A ham station aboard the
Swedish submarine HMS Uppland, SL8SUB, will be on the air this weekend to
mark the 100th anniversary of the Swedish Navy's submarine service.
Operation will be on CW and SSB, HF and VHF. This will mark the first-ever
ham operation from a Swedish sub.--The Daily DX <>

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
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The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

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OS X Mail (Mac)

Use the "View/Message/Plain Text Alternative" menu item.


Use the "Message text garbled?" link in the drop-down menu at the upper right of the displayed message block. pine, alpine Set "prefer-plain-text" in your ~/.pinerc configuration file: feature-list=..., prefer-plain-text, ...


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