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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 23, No. 41
October 15, 2004


* +FCC adopts rules for BPL
* +ARRL calls for shutdown of New York BPL system
* +AMSAT-NA Symposium gets greeting from space
* +ARRL invites input on digital systems
* +Repeater coordinator drops controversial all-tone policy
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
     Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration
     ARRL Web site glitch
    +No news is . . . no news
    +RAC Board appoints new President, First Vice President
     New world record set on 47 GHz
     Amateurs join Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame
     Alan B. Caplan, K4AVQ, SK
     Former landline telegraphers to gather
     DXCC Desk accredits DX operations

+Available on ARRL Audio News



As expected, the FCC this week adopted revised Part 15 (unlicensed
services) rules to specifically regulate broadband over power line (BPL)
systems. Meeting October 14 in open session, the Commission adopted a
Report and Order in ET Docket 04-37. In comments before voting, three
members of the Commission, including Chairman Michael Powell, specifically
cited the concerns of Amateur Radio operators and expressed either
assurances or hope that the new BPL rules will adequately address
interference to licensed services. Republican FCC Commissioner Kevin
Martin mentioned Amateur Radio's and broadcasters' interference concerns
in a written statement. ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, said he was
encouraged to see the Commission acknowledge interference to amateurs as a
genuine issue in the proceeding.

"What the League has done in the last year and a half on this issue showed
in the Commission's public meeting today," Haynie said Thursday. He cited
the FCC's approval of three major points that the League had been pushing
for: Certification of BPL equipment instead of verification, a requirement
for a public BPL database--something the BPL industry did not want--and
mechanisms to deal swiftly with interference complaints. Haynie conceded,
however, that the devil is in the details of the R&O, which likely will
not be made public for at least a few weeks.

Anh Wride of the FCC Office of Engineering and Technology (OET),
acknowledged that Access BPL devices "pose a somewhat higher potential for
interference to licensed radio services than typical Part 15 devices."
But, Wride continued, "we believe the specific benefits of BPL warrant
acceptance of a small degree of additional risk, and that this
interference potential can be satisfactorily managed."

Commissioner Michael Copps, a Democrat, said he remains concerned about
interference to Amateur Radio users. "I take the concerns of this
community very seriously and believe that the FCC has an obligation to
work hard to monitor, investigate and take quick action, where
appropriate, to resolve harmful interference."

Copps said if interference occurs, "we must have a system in place to
resolve it immediately," and he expressed the hope that the new rules
would include such "rapid turnaround" provisions. Copps, who dissented in
part with the R&O, raised the question of whether utility ratepayers
should have to "subsidize an electric power company's foray into

The Commission's other Democrat, Jonathan Adelstein, said the interference
question made the proceeding a challenging one because it had to
accommodate concerns raised by Public Safety licensees, federal government
users and Amateur Radio operators. "These are important services that we
need to protect from harmful interference," Adelstein said.

Adelstein also said that while it's clear that some BPL systems can
co-exist with existing licensees, others "haven't fared so well." He said
those systems shouldn't be deployed commercially until it's assured that
they won't cause harmful interference.

Commissioner Kathleen Abernathy, a Republican, said the FCC had to "make
some hard compromises" to deal with questions about interference. But she
expressed confidence in "technical solutions."

Chairman Powell called it "a banner day" for communications in the US
because, he said, BPL promises "ubiquitous service to all Americans at
affordable rates." The chairman, a Republican, conceded that BPL will
affect some spectrum users--including "all those wonderful Amateur Radio
operators out there." Powell said the FCC has taken Amateur Radio
interference concerns seriously from the start and has put protections in
place "to allow that service to continue." At the same time, Powell
implied that the FCC must balance the benefits of BPL against the relative
value of other licensed services.

Powell said BPL's potential for the US economy "is too great, too
enormous, too potentially groundbreaking to sit idly by and allow any
claim or any possible speculative fear" keep the Commission from promoting
adoption of BPL technology.

ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, suggested that Powell was overstating the
necessity of yet another broadband pipeline. "It's astonishing to me that
the chairman of the FCC can talk about needing a 'third way' to provide
broadband to consumers when multiple technologies already are available,
including wireless broadband," he said.

The United Power Line Council (UPLC) applauded the FCC's action, saying
the new rules should encourage BPL deployment while protecting licensed
services from harmful interference. "We didn't get everything we wanted,"
said UPLC President and CEO William R. Moroney, who called the R&O "the
result of close cooperation and compromise" with the National
Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) to address its
concerns about potential interference.

For more information on BPL, visit the "Broadband Over Power Line (BPL)
and Amateur Radio" page on the ARRL Web site <>.


The ARRL this week asked the FCC to shut down a BPL field trial system in
Briarcliff Manor, New York, that has been the subject of past interference
complaints. The ARRL says the system, operated by Ambient Corporation
under an FCC Experimental license, continues to cause "harmful
interference" to amateur stations and that the FCC must require it to
cease operation immediately.

"The operator of the system has attempted what it referred to as
'adjustments' in this system in order to reduce the severe interference
potential to licensed radio services such as the Amateur Service," said
ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD. "These 'adjustments' have come to
be inaccurately referred to as 'notching' of certain bands, and as a
solution to interference to Amateur Service stations, they are incomplete
and inadequate."

The ARRL's October 8 letter of complaint asserts that the Briarcliff Manor
system not only is currently causing interference but fails to comply with
either applicable FCC Part 15 regulations or with the terms of its FCC
experimental authorization.

ARRL said the BPL facility at Briarcliff Manor should not be permitted to
resume operation until it can demonstrate "full compliance" with FCC
rules. The League also called on the FCC to impose "appropriate monetary
forfeitures" against Ambient.

Accompanying the League's complaint were technical exhibits substantiating
the degree of interference the League alleges. One exhibit shows the
results of frequency-shifting adjustments Ambient made to the system in
the wake of "multiple interference complaints from licensed radio
amateurs." The complaint maintains that the adjustments failed to reduce
interference on "a substantial portion" of the HF amateur allocations. The
ARRL study says Ambient has been trying for more than a year to mitigate
interference by using "notching" techniques, "but to no avail."

The ARRL said measurements taken at 14.3 MHz at one point in the system
"revealed 30 to 40 dB of degradation to Amateur Radio operations along a
stretch of road over a kilometer in length." A sweep at another location
showed that BPL signals occupying the entire 15-meter band remained strong
more than a quarter mile from the BPL injector.

"The levels of interfering BPL signals are sufficient to obscure virtually
all Amateur Radio received signals and preclude Amateur Radio
communications in the areas and on the bands identified in the report,"
the ARRL concluded.

ARRL member Alan Crosswell, N2YGK, a resident of the community, has
documented interference, complaints and related information on his "BPL in
Briarcliff Manor" Web site <>.

The Briarcliff Manor BPL system, which is operated by the electric utility
Consolidated Edison, was the focus of a March 2004 front-page Wall Street
Journal article, "In This Power Play, High-Wire Act Riles Ham-Radio Fans,"
by technology writer Ken Brown. ARRL staff members accompanied Brown to
the BPL site so he could hear the interference firsthand.


A congratulatory greeting <> via
ham radio from the crew of the International Space Station was among the
highlights of the 2004 AMSAT-NA Symposium and Annual Meeting October 8-10
in Arlington, Virginia. The gathering--for the first time held in
conjunction with this week's Amateur Radio on the International Space
Station (ARISS) International delegates meeting--attracted upward of 200
attendees--among them some of the best-known names in the amateur
satellite world. Fincke joined the celebration vicariously by working
ARISS Ham Radio Technical Manager Kenneth Ransom, N5VHO, during an ISS
pass October 9.

"I'd like to send a greeting to all the people attending the AMSAT
conference and congratulate you all on 35 years of Amateur Radio in
space," astronaut Mike Fincke, KE5AIT, said from NA1SS on behalf of
himself and Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka, RN3DT. "Wishing you
all the best from the International Space Station!" Fincke jumped in to
work Ransom and several other stations while the ARISS amateur gear was in
FM repeater mode.

"Thanks to you guys, people in the world are a little bit closer
together," Fincke added. In a second QSO
<> with WF5X, Fincke reiterated
his greeting and expressed gratitude to AMSAT--an ARISS partner--for the
amateur equipment aboard the space station. Fincke briefly switched to
Russian to also greet ARISS-Russia delegate Sergei Samburov, RV3DR, who
was with Ransom in Arlington during the QSO.

The annual gathering marked the official changing of the guard at AMSAT-NA
as Robin Haighton, VE3FRH, presided over his last Board of Directors
meeting October 8 before turning over the gavel to incoming president Rick
Hambly, W2GPS. At the board session, members agreed to file a Petition for
Reconsideration of the recent FCC Second Report and Order in IB Docket
02-54 dealing with orbital debris.

Haighton's four-year tenure spanned this year's success of the Echo/AO-51
satellite, which has helped the organization to rebound from the earlier,
less-than-successful outcome of the now-defunct Phase 3D/AO-40--the most
expensive and elaborate amateur satellite project in history. Planning for
the proposed Project Eagle satellite also got under way under Haighton's
AMSAT-NA leadership. That work will continue under Hambly.

Haighton had the pleasure of announcing that AMSAT finally was able to
recover the entire $110,000 Echo launch cost, thanks to donations from
individuals attending the AMSAT Symposium and matching funds.

Hambly hopes to proceed with new satellite projects already on the drawing
board as well as to expand AMSAT-NA's educational mission. He also faces
the challenge of finding a new home for the AMSAT Lab. The Orlando
building where Phase 3D was integrated was damaged beyond repair by
Hurricane Charley.

In addition to hearing updates on satellite projects present and future,
Symposium attendees were able to choose from a rich menu of presentations.
Among them, AMSAT-DL President Peter GŁlzow, DB2OS, outlined plans for a
Phase 3 Express (P3E) satellite--essentially a scaled-down and
less-complex version of AO-40. AMSAT-NA is a partner in the P3E
high-altitude-orbit satellite, which will be a prelude to an ambitious
Mars-orbiting spacecraft. Other presentations covered such diverse topics
as Voice over Internet Protocol communication for the ARISS program, the
AMSAT-UK Student Space Exploration and Technology Initiative (SSETI)
satellite, CubeSats, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence and a
proposal for a satellite with an onboard robot to repair it.

ISS Expedition 4 crew member and astronaut Carl Walz, KC5TIE, keynoted the
October 9 banquet. Among the many high points of his duty tour was a 2002
space walk with Expedition 4 Commander Yuri Onufrienko, RK3DUO, to install
the first of four ARISS antennas on the ISS.


The ARRL Ad-Hoc Committee on Amateur Radio Emergency
Service--ARES--Communications (ARESCOM) is seeking the assistance of the
amateur community in documenting what digital communications systems now
are in use today on the VHF and UHF bands. While the majority of digital
communication is via packet, there are many different packet systems in
use, and they are interconnected using a variety of methods.

The ARRL Board of Directors resolved at its July 2004 meeting to encourage
the deployment of e-mail via Amateur Radio--"as exemplified by Winlink
2000"--to meet the needs of served agencies and others involved in
providing disaster communications.

ARESCOM now wants to gather input on systems already in place. "We are
seeking input from packet System Administrators, not individual users, as
we need information on how the packet nodes are linked and what
connectivity methods the packet systems use with systems outside their
coverage area," said ARRL Ad-hoc ARESCOM Committee Chair Dick Mondro,
W8FQT. The committee plans to wrap up data collection December 31.

The study seeks detailed information on current packet infrastructure, and
one person may respond on behalf of several system operators if they all
approve. "We simply ask that the names and call signs of all involved be
listed," Mondro said.

To participate download the on-line form
<> or
<>. After providing all
applicable information, submit the survey form via e-mail <>;
or via surface mail to ARRL, DCTI Study, 225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111.

Those interested in sharing comments and ideas are invited to subscribe to
the DCTI Reflector <>;. For more information,
visit the ARRL Digital Communications Study Web page


The SouthEastern Repeater Association (SERA) Board of Directors has
rescinded a controversial policy that would have amended SERA's
coordination policy and guidelines to require CTCSS or DCS receive and
transmit tones on all new FM voice repeaters. Existing voice repeaters
would have had to comply by July 1, 2006. The Board adopted the "all tone,
all the time" policy during its summer meeting in June. SERA President
Roger Gregory, W4RWG, said the SERA Board repealed the policy "after much
discussion" on October 4.

"We may revisit this issue at a later date, but with input from the
membership," Gregory told ARRL. He said that while SERA received many
positive comments as well as negative ones, complaints from repeater
owners prompted the Board's change of heart on the tone policy.

"Some [repeaters] had been untoned for years without any interference
issues," he said. "They did not wish to tone. North Carolina, South
Carolina and Tennessee seemed to have more concerned repeater owners."

The largest Amateur Radio repeater coordinating body in the US, SERA
provides voluntary frequency coordination for repeaters in Georgia, South
Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi and parts of
Virginia and West Virginia. In a letter on the SERA Web site
<>, Gregory called the tone requirement "just another
tool we thought was needed to help us to continue to do our job." He noted
that SERA has been requiring tones on 10-meter, 6-meter and 70-cm
repeaters "for years."

Some of those upset with SERA's June decision to require tones tried to
get the FCC involved. The Amateur Repeater Society of East Tennessee
(ARSET) <>, which sprang up because of the controversy,
wanted the FCC to recognize it as the official coordinating body for
eastern Tennessee.

FCC Special Counsel for Enforcement Riley Hollingsworth said the
Commission does not recognize or certify specific coordinators in the
Amateur Service, as it does in the Land Mobile services, and had no plans
to get involved in the SERA controversy. But he said requiring tones is a
good idea.

"From a spectrum efficiency standpoint, tones will be the wave of the
future and have been in regular use in the Land Mobile services for
decades," said Hollingsworth, who oversees Land Mobile as well as Amateur
Radio Service enforcement. He said if tones will cure an interference case
in the Land Mobile services, he tells the parties to implement them.

"It is surprising that tone systems are not used more in the Amateur
Service, a service we expect to be on the leading edge of technology
instead of being wedded to old ways of doing things," Hollingsworth added.
"As for tones, it's only a matter of time, just as it was with transistors
and integrated circuits."


Sunspot seeker Tad "You Are My Sunshine" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington,
reports: Solar activity has been very low. In fact, on Sunday and Monday,
October 10-11, the sunspot count was zero. Images of the sun on the site ,> for those days show a
blank, spotless sun. Check the archive section by dialing in the dates on
the upper right of the Web page, and look at the sun images on the left.

October 10-11 were the first days with a sunspot count of zero since
January 27-28, 2004. To find another period before that with a zero
sunspot number, you have to go back six years to January 7-9, 1998. There
was one day prior to that with a zero sunspot number, October 23, 1997,
and there were several zero days in the summer of that year.

For the next week and through the end of the month, daily solar flux is
expected to hover around 90. A solar wind stream from a recurring coronal
hole may cause some unstable geomagnetic conditions today and tomorrow,
October 15-16. Geomagnetic conditions are expected to be very quiet for
the week of October 22-28.

Sunspot numbers for September 30 through October 6 were 36, 37, 35, 39,
41, 40 and 39, with a mean of 38.1. The 10.7 cm flux was 88.2, 88, 88, 89,
90.7, 90.8 and 92.1, with a mean of 89.5. Estimated planetary A indices
were 4, 4, 12, 15, 10, 5 and 5, with a mean of 7.9. Estimated mid-latitude
A indices were 2, 2, 8, 7, 8, 3 and 2, with a mean of 4.6.

Sunspot numbers for October 7 through 13 were 38, 28, 24, 0, 0, 14 and 41,
with a mean of 20.7. The 10.7 cm flux was 93.8, 90.6, 88, 89, 86.9, 87.6
and 88.5, with a mean of 89.2. Estimated planetary A indices were 4, 7, 6,
8, 11, 11 and 35, with a mean of 11.7. Estimated mid-latitude A indices
were 4, 4, 3, 5, 9, 7 and 17, with a mean of 7.



* This weekend on the radio: Jamboree On The Air (JOTA)
<>, the JARTS World Wide RTTY
Contest, the Microwave Fall Sprint, the Worked All Germany Contest, the
Asia-Pacific Fall Sprint (CW). the UBA ON 2-Meter Contest, the RSGB 21/28
MHz Contest (CW) and the Illinois QSO Party are the weekend of October
16-17. JUST AHEAD: The ARCI Fall QSO Party, the W/VE Islands QSO Party,
the 50 MHz Fall Sprint and the FISTS Coast to Coast Contest are the
weekend of October 23-24. The CQ World Wide DX Contest (SSB) and the 10-10
International Fall Contest (CW) are the weekend of October 30-31. See the
ARRL Contest Branch page <> and the WA7BNM
Contest Calendar <> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the ARRL Antenna Modeling (EC-004) and Radio Propagation
(EC-011) on-line courses remains open through Sunday, October 17. Classes
begin Friday October 29. The Antenna Modeling course is an excellent way
to learn the ins and outs of computerized modeling of antenna designs.
Computer-modeling expert and noted author L.B. Cebik, W4RNL, has combined
the expertise of his long career as a college professor with his love and
antennas and antenna modeling to offer a comprehensive, yet practical,
course of study. Propagation students will study the science of RF
propagation, including the properties of electromagnetic waves, the
atmosphere and the ionosphere, the sun and sunspots, ground waves and sky
waves, and various propagation modes--including aurora and meteor scatter.
To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web
page <> or contact the ARRL Certification and
Continuing Education Program Department <>;.

* Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration: Registration
for the ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level III on-line
course (EC-003) opens Monday, October 18, 1201 AM EDT, and remains open
through the October 23-24 weekend or until all available seats have been
filled. Amateurs aged 55 and older are strongly encouraged to participate.
Class begins Friday, November 5. Thanks to our grant sponsors--the
Corporation for National and Community Service and the United Technologies
Corporation--the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be
reimbursed after successful completion of the course. During this
registration period, seats are being offered to ARRL members on a
first-come, first-served basis. To learn more, visit the ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education Web page <>.
For more information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan
Miller, K3UFG,; 860-594-0340.

* ARRL Web site glitch: Some updates to ARRL members' Web site records
made since October 1 may have been lost due to a server problem this week.
This affects updated e-mail addresses and automatic e-mail delivery
selections. It does not include changes to mailing addresses, call signs
or other membership data. If in doubt, check your record on the Member
Data page <>. ARRL regrets
the inconvenience.

* No news is . . . no news: There have been no changes to the Amateur
Radio Part 97 rules nor any news to report regarding FCC action on
proposals that address the number of license classes, the 5 WPM Morse code
requirement (Element 1) to obtain a General or Extra license, or other
amateur licensing qualifications or privileges. The FCC continues to
review the thousands of comments it received on 18 petitions for rule
making--including a petition from the ARRL--that, in general, address
various facets of license restructuring and the Morse code requirement.
Prompting most of these petitions were actions taken during World
Radiocommunication Conference 2003 (WRC-03). The FCC first must issue a
Notice of Proposed Rule Making and assign it a docket number, then invite
comments on what it decides to propose, based on the petitions it has
before it. The ARRL estimates that the FCC is only about one-third of the
way through its review of the petitions, however, and does not anticipate
any final FCC action--in the form of a Report and Order--until sometime in
2006. The ARRL has posted answers to frequently asked questions on its own
restructuring initiative on its Web site

* RAC Board appoints new President, First Vice President: Radio Amateurs
of Canada <> has announced that Earle Smith, VE6NM, is
the RAC's new president, and John Iliffe, VE3CES/VA3JI, is the
organization's new First Vice President. Smith and Iliffe will fill the
remaining terms of Daniel Lamoureux, VE2KA, and Bob Nash, VE3KZ,
respectively, which run through next year. Lamoureux and Nash stepped down
recently for medical reasons. Smith and Iliffe were appointed by the RAC
Board of Directors during a special meeting October 12. Smith has been the
RAC Director for the Alberta/Northwest Territories/Nunavut Region. The RAC
Board will announce a new director soon.

* New world record set on 47 GHz: On September 19 during the ARRL 10 GHz
and Up Cumulative Contest, Frank Bauregger, W6QI, and Gary Lauterbach,
AD6FP, claimed a new world distance record on 47 GHz after they completed
a contact over a distance of 290 km. W6QI operated from Shuteye Peak
(DM07gi) just south of Yosemite, while AD6FP operated from Frazier
Mountain (DM04ms) north of Los Angeles. Although it was officially still
summer, W6QI had to brave 30-degree temperatures and snow while modifying
the radio in order to complete the contact. Signal margins were 40 dB on
the W6QI end and about 8 dB on the AD6FP end. The contact was completed
using a combination of narrowband FM and CW. The two reported weather
conditions were quite unusual for September with scattered rain showers in
the central California Valley between Shuteye and Frazier.

* Amateurs join Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame: Two
League members have been inducted into the Air Force Space and Missile
Pioneers Hall of Fame. Rodney C. Pratt, K2AFK, of Holland Patent, New
York, and William O. "Bill" Troetschel, W7LVO, of Saratoga, California,
also will receive the Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Award, which
recognizes individuals who played a significant role in the history of Air
Force space and missile programs. Pratt and Troetschel were honored during
a September 1 ceremony at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado. The Air
Force Space and Missile Pioneers Award consists of an engraved trophy.
There were six honorees in 2004.

* Alan B. Caplan, K4AVQ, SK: Alan B. Caplan, K4AVQ (ex-W0RIC), of Apple
Valley, Minnesota, died October 8. He was 63. Licensed as a young teenager
while living in Virginia, he eventually went to work in the Amateur radio
industry. Caplan was customer service and sales manager for Hy-Gain from
1976 through 1993 and more recently was sales manager at Timewave. "I am
deeply saddened to hear of the passing of Alan Caplan," said Chip
Margelli, K7JA, of Vertex-Standard (Yaesu). "We both worked in the
manufacturing/distribution side of the Amateur Radio industry for a number
of years, and he was always a steady and knowledgeable person who
represented his company with dignity and distinction. And he was just one
of the nicest guys you'll ever know." Caplan was an ARRL member and a
veteran of the US Navy. Survivors include his wife Rebecca Harman, a son
and a daughter.--some information contributed by Randy Gawtry, K0CBH

* Former landline telegraphers to gather: Telegraphers from throughout the
US and Canada will gather in person at the Steam Railroading Institute in
Owosso, Michigan, Saturday, October 16, to formally dedicate the
Institute's newly constructed telegraph office and a national telegraph
hub. Others will participate "on-line" via a nationwide telegraph circuit.
Sponsors say the event will provide a rare glimpse into an earlier era, as
numerous telegraph operators will be on the wire exchanging telegrams and
conversing in American Morse Code. K8QMN will retransmit the proceedings
October 16 on 14,050 kHz (Ī3 kHz) from approximately 1600 to 2000 UTC,
providing radio amateurs throughout North America with a rare opportunity
to hear American Morse code being used by experienced telegraphers. This
code, developed by Morse and Vail, is the predecessor to the International
Morse Code that radio amateurs use. QSL with a business-size SASE to Morse
Telegraph Club, PO Box 457, Allegan, MI. 49010.

* DXCC Desk accredits DX operations: The ARRL DXCC Desk has approved these
operations for DXCC credit: 9U6PM, Burundi, effective August 20, 2004;
ZS8MI, Prince Edward & Marion Island, April 1-May 9, 2004. A new feature,
"DXCC Frequently Asked Questions" <>,
can answer most questions about the DXCC program. For more information,
visit the DXCC Web page <>. Current ARRL DX
bulletins are available on the W1AW DX Bulletins for 2004 page

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
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The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

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OS X Mail (Mac)

Use the "View/Message/Plain Text Alternative" menu item.


Use the "Message text garbled?" link in the drop-down menu at the upper right of the displayed message block. pine, alpine Set "prefer-plain-text" in your ~/.pinerc configuration file: feature-list=..., prefer-plain-text, ...


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