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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 24, No. 04
January 28, 2005


* +ARRL Board lays out 2005 legislative priorities
* +International Humanitarian, Leonard Award winners announced
* +Astronaut enthuses French elementary schoolers via ham radio
* +FCC ramps up forfeiture total in Gerritsen case
* +Pact facilitates international ham radio disaster communication
* +DXCC standings now available daily via the Web
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
    +Nominations for ARRL ham radio instructor awards due by March 1
    +Amateur Radio volunteer among train wreck victims
     ISS RS0ISS packet system remains problematic
     Special event station to commemorate Yalta Conference

+Available on ARRL Audio News



Frigid New England temperatures and a major snowstorm failed to chill
enthusiasm as the ARRL Board of Directors met January 21-22 in Windsor,
Connecticut, to tackle a lengthy agenda. ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP,
chaired the gathering. Among the highlights of the session was the Board's
unanimous adoption of positions on six initiatives for the 109th Congress.
Topping the list was a call for "consistent application" of the FCC's
limited federal preemption policy--PRB-1--to Amateur Radio antenna
systems. The League wants PRB-1 to apply to "all types of land use
regulations," public and private. That would include deed covenants,
conditions and restrictions (CC&Rs).

"The American Radio Relay League seeks congressional instruction to the
FCC to extend its limited preemption policy governing residential Amateur
Radio antennas, so that private land-use authorities cannot preclude, but
must reasonably accommodate, Amateur Radio communications in subdivisions
and communities," the Board resolved. After the FCC declined to include
CC&Rs under the PRB-1 umbrella, the League since 2002 has initiated bills
in Congress to accomplish the same end.

In addition, the Board expressed support for measures to improve federal
management of telecommunications, including beefing up the FCC's ability
to regulate transmitter, receiver and antenna issues and resolve
electromagnetic interference. The Board also wants public service
allocations, including Amateur Radio's, exempted from auction or
commercial reallocation, and compensatory spectrum whenever the federal
government reallocates existing public service spectrum to another
service. The resolution reflected the essence of the "Amateur Radio
Spectrum Protection Act of 2004," HR 713. An identical bill will be
introduced into the 109th Congress.

Calling amateur frequencies "the technological equivalent of a national
park," the Board further resolved to support measures that "preserve and
protect" primary Amateur Radio access to existing amateur spectrum "as a
natural resource for the enjoyment of all properly licensed individuals,
and protect against interference from unlicensed transmitters such as Part
15 devices" operating on amateur frequencies.

Finally, the Board expressed support for requiring the FCC to develop
effective, mandatory standards for radio frequency susceptibility of
consumer electronic devices. And it expressed general opposition to
expansion of current prohibitions against the reception of radio signals
beyond those already on the books.

In a related vein, the Board affirmed support for the ARRL Grassroots
Legislative Action Plan and called for its immediate implementation.
Hudson Division Director Frank Fallon, N2FF, says the Grassroots
Legislative Action Plan will function mainly by direct contacts with
lawmakers in their members' home districts and by motivating legislative
support through letter writing by members.

Working with the new Congress could prove more difficult than in the past,
ARRL's congressional consultant John Chwat of Chwat & Co suggested to the
Board. He expressed the belief that the 109th Congress is very contentious
and advised that every League effort on Capitol Hill focus on Amateur
Radio's role in emergency communication.

Following recommendations of the ARRL Executive Committee, the Board
adopted changes to the League's pending petition that would propose
segmenting bands principally by maximum bandwidth rather than by emission
type. Amendments to the plan, still in the draft stage, would call on the
FCC to permit non-telephony emissions not exceeding 3 kHz at 10.135 to
10.150 MHz, prohibit "continuous" test transmissions on most frequencies
above 51 MHz, and clarify the rules to specify that amateur stations may
use any published digital code, as long as other rules are observed.

The Board will consider the amended bandwidth petition at its July
meeting. The League is not expected to file the petition with the FCC
until later this year.

Turning out for their first meeting of the ARRL Board were new
Southwestern Division Director Dick Norton, N6AA, and Vice Director Ned
Stearns, AA7A, both elected last fall. New on the "back bench" was Rocky
Mountain Division Vice Director Brian Mileshosky, N5ZGT. At 25, Mileshosky
is believed to be the youngest vice director in League history. He
succeeded Rev Morton, WS7W, who attended for the first time as Rocky
Mountain Division Director.

The Board also elected a new ARRL chief operating officer. He's Harold R.
Kramer, WJ1B, of Cheshire, Connecticut, now a vice president with
Connecticut Public Broadcasting. When he officially joins the ARRL staff
February 15, Kramer will succeed former COO Mark Wilson, K1RO, who left
the ARRL Headquarters staff last September. Board members got a chance to
greet Kramer at the January Board meeting.

Additional details on the January Board meeting are on the ARRL Web site
<>. The minutes of the Board
meeting also are on the ARRL Web site <>.


The ARRL Board of Directors has named the winners of the 2004 ARRL
International Humanitarian Award and the 2004 Bill Leonard, W2SKE,
Professional Media Award.

Veteran radio amateur and ARRL Life Member Dr Glenn Johnson, W0GJ, of
Bemidji, Minnesota, will receive the 2004 ARRL International Humanitarian
Award. The award recognizes Dr Johnson's contributions as a medical
emissary to the Kingdom of Bhutan and the numerous times he has practiced
and taught Amateur Radio in that developing country.

Among the first to bring Amateur Radio back to Bhutan during a visit in
2000, Dr Johnson learned firsthand during that trip that the country had
very limited resources to deal with those needing orthopedic treatment.
The following year, he went to Bhutan as an orthopedic surgeon on behalf
of Orthopaedics Overseas, a group of physicians and health-care
professionals dedicated to improving basic orthopedic care in developing
countries through training and education. Dr Johnson was able to treat a
wide variety of injuries and conditions by working with local physicians,
enabling them to augment their own skills and knowledge.

During Dr Johnson's 2000 visit, Bhutan's director of telecommunications
and the chief engineer of the Bhutan Telecommunications Authority asked
W0GJ to help teach a ham radio course. Using his 25-plus years experience
as an ARRL-certified instructor, Dr Johnson adapted material for an
Amateur Radio class, taking Bhutan's licensing and operating regulations
into account. In less than a month, seven local students finished the
course, passing the examination on the first try. Dr Johnson subsequently
helped set up ham radio club stations at three high schools.

In recognition of his many contributions, the Bhutan government has
designated Dr Johnson as an honorary citizen, and he's been granted the
call sign A51B for life.

As the recipient of the 2004 International Humanitarian Award, Johnson
will be presented with an engraved plaque.

Named the recipient of the 2004 Bill Leonard, W2SKE, Professional Media
Award was Randall D. Larson of San Jose, California. Larson's six-page
article "Ham Operator Assistance" appeared in the July 2004 issue of
Homeland Protection Professional magazine.

"Thank you," Larson told ARRL when being notified that his submission had
won. "I am both humbled and pleased to have this article recognized by
your organization!"

A San Jose Fire Department senior dispatcher and director of an incident
dispatcher team since 1993, Larson is very familiar with emergency
communications. He's also been a Communications Academy instructor since

Larson's byline also has appeared in publications that include Firehouse,
Fire Engineering, American Fire Journal, 9-1-1 Magazine--for which he
currently serves as editor--and Public Safety Communications.

The Leonard Award goes annually to a media professional or group who does
the best job during the previous calendar year of covering Amateur Radio
in print, photo essay, audio or video forms. As 2004 winner, Larson will
receive a $500 check and an engraved plaque.


International Space Station Commander Leroy Chiao, KE5BRW, estimated that
he and his Expedition 10 crewmate, cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov, have
traveled "many millions" of kilometers through space since their mission
began last October. The Expedition 10 crew marked its 100th day in space
January 21. Chiao made the comment in response to a question put to him
January 19 during an Amateur Radio on the International Space Station
(ARISS) contact between NA1SS on the ISS and F6KFA at Robespierre School
in Rueil Malmaison, France.

"If you figure we orbit Earth once every one and a half hours, and we're
going to be up here six months, you can figure it out. It's going to be
many millions," Chiao said, inviting the youngsters to do the math for

As hard as he worked to become an astronaut and earn a place on an ISS
crew--he and Sharipov trained for more than three years for their mission,
and Chiao described getting into the astronaut program as "pretty
competitive"--Chiao said he had no desire to spend his life off the

"I really love being in space, I love being on space missions, but I miss
my family and friends and other things about the earth," Chiao said. "I
miss nature and fresh fruits and vegetables, so while I like being in
space, I do want to come back to Earth."

While he's in space, however, Chiao said looking at Earth is one of his
and Sharipov's favorite pastimes, and he said they can see a lot with the
naked eye, including continents and cities. "I'm still looking for the
Great Wall [of China]," Chiao said. "I haven't seen it yet."

An audience of more than 300 turned out for the event at the primary
school near Paris, more than 200 of them students. The enthusiastic crowd
erupted into loud applause as the QSO drew to a close, and cheers broke
out after Chiao offered his now-traditional parting comment to "follow
your dreams and reach for the stars."

ARISS <> is an international educational outreach
with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA.


Briefly licensed radio amateur and alleged jammer Jack Gerritsen,
ex-KG6IRO, of Bell, California, now faces a total of $52,000 in
FCC-imposed or proposed fines. In a January 21 Notice of Apparent
Liability for Forfeiture (NAL) the FCC proposed to levy another $21,000
forfeiture on Gerritsen--this time for apparently violating Section 333 of
the Communications Act by interfering with a US Coast Guard rescue effort
last October 29 on amateur frequencies. Part 97 Amateur Service rules also
require that control operators "give priority to stations providing
emergency communications," the FCC noted.

"Gerritsen's apparent willful and malicious interference with the radio
communications of the Coast Guard Auxiliary officer who was attempting to
communicate with a ship in distress is egregious," said the most recent
NAL, signed by FCC Los Angeles District Office District Director Catherine
Deaton. "According to the evidence, Gerritsen knowingly operates, without
a license, radio transmission equipment." In the NAL, the FCC alleged that
Gerritsen continued to transmit "despite repeated warnings and requests to
vacate the frequency."

The latest proposed forfeiture factors in an "upward adjustment" from the
$7000 base fine for causing interference to licensed stations, the NAL
said. The FCC already has affirmed a $10,000 fine levied against Gerritsen
last year for interfering with Amateur Radio communications. In December,
the Commission proposed another $21,000 fine, citing additional instances
of alleged interference on amateur frequencies.

Gerritsen has been accused of bombarding numerous Los Angeles-area
repeaters with verbal tirades, often identifying with his now-deleted
amateur call sign. The FCC in 2001 granted Gerritsen a Technician ticket,
then promptly set it aside when it learned of Gerritsen's state conviction
for interfering with public safety radio communications. He spent some
time in jail as a result of that case, which he's appealing.

According to the FCC, the October 29, 2004, incident involved efforts by a
member of the US Coast Guard Auxiliary to contact the sailing vessel
Elke-Marie after a storm  had knocked out the boat's VHF marine radio. The
vessel had working Amateur Radio gear, however. When the USCGA officer
attempted to contact the S/V Elke-Marie on behalf of the Coast Guard using
the Catalina Island Amateur Radio Association (CARA) VHF repeater,
"Gerritsen began speaking and transmitting a prerecorded message," the
officer and the complainant in the case--the wife of a passenger on the

Although the officer asked him to stand down, Gerritsen continued to
transmit, accusing the officer of declaring a sham emergency in an effort
to jam Gerritsen's transmissions, the NAL recounts. The FCC said the
transmissions, which continued for some 40 minutes, included the repeated
playing of a recording and ultimately ended with the perpetrator's saying,
"If you jam me, I'll jam you."

FCC agents promptly tracked a signal on the repeater's input frequency to
Gerritsen's residence, but attempts to contact him by telephone proved
unsuccessful. Later that day, FCC officials tracked to Gerritsen's
residence a transmission on another 2-meter frequency during which the
operator identified as KG6IRO. Although the agents reported hearing a
voice from inside the dwelling that "synchronized with the voice" on their
scanner, the NAL said, no one answered the door.

In the NAL, Deaton said the Communications Act requirement that all radio
stations give "absolute priority" to radio communications or signals
relating to ships in distress "exemplifies one of the best uses for radio
transmissions, the endeavor to save a human life."

"Gerritsen's actions on October 29, 2004," she concluded, "exemplify the

Several hundred ARRL members from the Los Angeles area have complained to
the League about Gerritsen. In mid-December, the League called upon FCC
Enforcement Chief David Solomon to intervene with the US Attorney's office
in the case, citing the urgency of the situation and suggesting "that
procedures other than monetary forfeitures be brought to bear."


When an international disaster strikes, humanitarian organizations now
will be able to provide telecommunications more quickly and effectively to
help victims, thanks to a treaty that became effective January 8. The
Tampere Convention on the Provision of Telecommunication Resources for
Disaster Mitigation and Relief Operations largely eliminates roadblocks to
moving telecommunications personnel and equipment into and within
disaster-stricken areas--such as those affected by the December earthquake
and tsunami. Delegates to the Intergovernmental Conference on Emergency
Telecommunications (ICET-98) adopted the 17-article treaty in June of 1998
in Tampere, Finland. ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, attended on behalf of
the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU). ARRL Chief Technology
Officer Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, credits Hans Zimmermann, HB9AQS, with being "a
prime mover" behind the Tampere Convention.

"The Tampere Convention has broader purposes but is an important building
block in IARU's efforts to improve recognition of the Amateur Service in
providing emergency communications for disaster relief," Rinaldo says.
Zimmermann coordinated work on the Tampere disaster telecommunications
treaty while Seppo SisšttŲ, OH1VR, chaired the convention's organizing

Rinaldo notes too that the IARU led the way for a revision of Article 25
of the international Radio Regulations at World Radiocommunication
Conference 2003 (WRC-03) to include an item enabling radio amateurs to
handle third-party traffic during emergency and disaster relief
situations. While FCC Part 97 has not yet been revised to reflect this
change, ARRL understands from FCC staff that if governments of
disaster-affected countries do not object to their amateur stations
receiving messages from our amateur stations on behalf of third parties,
the US has no objection to its amateur stations transmitting international
communications in support of disaster relief.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) says that until the
Tampere Convention, regulatory barriers often impeded the ability of
humanitarian organizations to deploy telecommunications equipment across
borders in an emergency, and delays have cost lives.

"With this convention, relief workers can make full use of today's
telecommunication tools, which are essential for the coordination of
rescue operations," ITU Secretary-General Yoshio Utsumi said in a

The first treaty of its kind, the Tampere Convention calls on signatory
countries to facilitate prompt telecommunication aid to mitigate a
disaster's impact. It covers both installation and operation of
telecommunication services and waives regulatory barriers such as
licensing requirements and import restrictions as well as limitations on
the movement of humanitarian teams. The pact also grants immunity from
arrest and detention to those providing disaster assistance, and exempts
them from taxes and duties.

In his role as IARU's new International Coordinator for Emergency
Communications, Zimmermann, in concert with IARU regional coordinators, is
focusing on assisting IARU member-societies to fulfill "the expectations
of the international community, of all those who rely on
telecommunications when responding to emergencies, and of those affected
by disasters." As a first step in this task, he's facilitating an exchange
of information on training and cooperation on all levels.

Addressing that in a broader forum will be the first Global Amateur Radio
Emergency Communications Conference (GAREC-2005). An initiative of the
Finnish Amateur Radio Society (SRAL), GAREC 2005 will take place June
13-14 in Tampere, in recognition of the city's "long tradition in
emergency telecommunications," Zimmerman says.

Rinaldo also points to ITU Radiocommunication Sector Recommendation
M.1042, "Disaster Communications in the Amateur and Amateur-Satellite
Services" as another vehicle to formalize Amateur Radio's role in
international emergency and disaster mitigation. It encourages the
development of "robust, flexible and independent" Amateur Radio networks
that can operate from emergency power and provide communication in natural
disasters. The IARU, Rinaldo added, also had leading role in developing
the ITU-D Emergency Telecommunications Handbook, recently edited under
Zimmermann's leadership.

"Together," Rinaldo observed, "the Tampere Convention, the Handbook,
Article 25 and Recommendation M.1042 represent an improved environment in
which Amateur Radio operators can conduct international emergency


The ARRL Web site now features up-to-date listings of DXCC awards earned.
The new system shows every issued DXCC award known to ARRL's computerized
DXCC system, with the exception of individual standings for 5BDXCC. ARRL
Membership Services Manager Wayne Mills, N7NG, says the Web site listing
is even more complete than the DXCC Yearbook ever was, since the printed
list did not list inactive band-accounts for the previous year.

"This will list everything and everybody," Mills emphasized. "The new
system makes available a separate listing for each DXCC award type--band
or mode." Even more important, Mills notes, is that it essentially renders
obsolete the manually generated monthly and yearly reports. "Under the new
system, DXCC listings will updated daily," he emphasized.

The DXCC standings of all ARRL members will remain in dark type. Call
signs of non-members who have not submitted credits for 10 years or more
are in grayed-out type.

Each listing by band or mode is complete in a separate Adobe PDF file. The
largest listing (DXCC Mixed) now runs to more than 50 pages, but the size
of the PDF file is only about 150 kbytes because of file compression.
Printing format options include US letter-sized or ISO A4 paper.

The DXCC listings can be found at


Sunspot seeker Tad "Sunshine of Your Love" Cook, K7RA, Seattle,
Washington, reports: Solar activity was down this week. Average daily
sunspot numbers were off by nearly 36 points to 53.4, and average daily
solar flux dropped 31 points to 101.7.

On Friday, January 21, we were hit by a big blast of energy from an
X7-class solar flare the previous day. The planetary A index went to 61,
and the mid-latitude A index was 30. A severe geomagnetic storm lasted the
next couple of days, but conditions really calmed down on Monday through
Thursday, January 24-27. On Wednesday, January 26, the mid-latitude A
index went clear down to zero because the K index, upon which it is based,
was zero during all eight reporting periods. This is incredibly
quiet--good for HF propagation, provided the sunspots are there to support

We could hope for similar quiet conditions for this weekend's CQ World
Wide 160-meter CW Contest, but the forecast doesn't look that great. The
predicted planetary A indices for Friday through Monday, January 28-31,
are 15, 30, 20 and 20. This isn't due to any flare activity, but Earth is
about to move into a solar wind stream, and the most active conditions are
expected on January 29. Conditions should be back to quiet by February 3.

Flares, solar wind and geomagnetic storms aren't bad for all radio
propagation. Six meters often gets interesting during active conditions,
and a number of reports arrived this week concerning VHF. When HF
operators thought their radios were dead on January 21, OZ1DJJ in Denmark
worked Lefty Clement, K1TOL, in Maine on 6-meter CW via aurora during the
Scandinavian Activity Contest.

Sunspot numbers for January 20 through 26 were 61, 69, 60, 40, 42, 56 and
46, with a mean of 53.4. The 10.7 cm flux was 122.7, 113.5, 102.2, 95.8,
94.6, 94.1 and 89.3, with a mean of 101.7. Estimated planetary A indices
were 12, 61, 28, 17, 6, 4 and 4, with a mean of 18.9. Estimated
mid-latitude A indices were 10, 30, 23, 12, 5, 2 and 0, with a



* This weekend on the radio: The CQ 160-Meter Contest (CW), the REF
Contest (CW), the UK DX Contest (RTTY) and the UBA DX Contest (SSB) are
the weekend of January 29-30. JUST AHEAD: The North American Sprint (SSB),
the Vermont, Delaware and Minnesota QSO parties, the 10-10 International
Winter Contest (SSB), the YL-ISSB QSO Party, the YLRL YL-OM Contest (CW),
the AGCW Straight Key Party, the Mexico RTTY International Contest and the
ARCI Winter Fireside SSB Sprint are the weekend of February 5-6. The RSGB
80-Meter Club Championship (SSB) is February 7, and the ARS Spartan Sprint
is February 8. See the ARRL Contest Branch page
<> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the ARRL RFI (EC-006) and Antenna Design and Construction
(EC-009) courses remains open through Sunday, January 30. Classes begin
Friday, February 11. Antenna Design and Construction students will, among
other things, learn about basic dipoles and ground planes, and how to
assemble combinations of these into more complex antennas. Students also
learn about transmission lines, standing wave ratio, phased arrays and
Yagis. Students participating in the RFI course will learn to identify
various interference sources. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification
and Continuing Education Web page <> or contact
the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Program Department,

* Nominations for ARRL ham radio instructor awards due by March 1: The
deadline to submit nominations for ARRL's two Amateur Radio instructor
awards for 2004 is March 1, 2005. The ARRL Herb S. Brier Instructor of the
Year Award <> is
presented to a volunteer Amateur Radio instructor. Named in memory of
long-time CQ Novice Editor Herb S. Brier, W9AD, the award honors Brier's
spirit of effective, caring Amateur Radio instruction. The ARRL sponsors
this award, in conjunction with the Lake County (Indiana) Amateur Radio
Club to recognize the very best in volunteer Amateur Radio instruction and
recruitment. The ARRL Professional Educator of the Year Award
<> is presented to a
teacher who uses Amateur Radio as part of the curriculum or after-school
program, or teaches it in an educational institution, such as a community
college. These awards honor those hams who put in countless volunteer
hours to seek out newcomers and teach them the standards and practices of
Amateur Radio. Nominating forms for the Brier award and the Professional
Educator award are available on the ARRL Web site. All nominations must be
received at ARRL Headquarters by March 1. All nominees will be invited to
confirm their interest in competing for the award and to submit material
documenting their activities. Winners receive engraved plaques and up to
$100 worth of ARRL publications.

* Amateur Radio volunteer among train wreck victims: Amateur Radio
volunteer Scott McKeown, KE6EMI, of Moorpark, California, was among the 11
people who died after two Los Angeles Metrolink commuter trains collided
January 26 in Glendale. More than 200 people were injured in the mishap,
which occurred after one of the trains derailed after striking a motor
vehicle left on the tracks. McKeown, 42, served as Ventura County
ARES/RACES Area 8 Moorpark Assistant Emergency Coordinator. He also
regularly volunteered to support communications for the Angeles Crest
100-Mile Endurance Run and had assisted during past runnings of the Baker
to Vegas Relay Annual Challenge Run. A former City of Glendale employee,
McKeown--a married father of two--was acting telecommunications manager
for the City of Pasadena.

* ISS RS0ISS packet system remains problematic: ISS Ham Project Engineer
Kenneth Ransom, N5VHO, at Johnson Space Center reports that the packet BBS
portion (RS0ISS-11) aboard the International Space Station remains
non-operational, and efforts to restore the BBS capability have been
unsuccessful. "At this point it is unknown if this is a temporary or
permanent state," Ransom said, adding that Amateur Radio on the
International Space Station (ARISS) hopes the feature can be restored in
the future, "once a computer becomes available." Meanwhile, the ARISS
digipeater is working but exhibits difficulties in relaying data. "The
digipeater appears to be listening for long periods of time and then
transmitting all of the buffered information at once," Ransom explained.
"This duration of this issue seems to vary depending on your location." A
computer is tentatively scheduled to be delivered to the ISS later this
year, but Ransom says the schedule could be pushed back to accommodate
higher priority items. "Once a computer is available, troubleshooting of
both packet systems can be performed and hopefully both restored to full
functionality." The ARISS Phase 2 station handles RS0ISS packet system

* Special event station to commemorate Yalta Conference: Special event
station EM60J will be on the air February 4-11 from Ukraine to mark the
60th anniversary of the Yalta Conference. The historic 1945 talks brought
together the "Big Three" Allied leaders--(left to right in photo) Great
Britain's Prime Minister Winston Churchill, US President Franklin D.
Roosevelt and Russia's Joseph Stalin--to discuss post-World War II
reorganization of Europe. The conference's primary purpose was to
re-establish the nations that had been conquered by Nazi Germany, and one
result was the partitioning of Germany into US, Russian, British and
French zones. QSL via UU5JYA or direct to PO Box 378, Yalta 98600,
Ukraine.--The Daily DX <>

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
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The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

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