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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 24, No. 06
February 11, 2005


* +ARRL files petition for reconsideration on BPL order
* +BPL problems persist in Austrian city
* +Earth cadets work space commander on ham radio
* +Hamvention to feature ARRL Expo 2005
* +Desecheo Island will remain a rare one a while longer
* +The DX Magazine releases most-wanted DXCC entities survey
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
     Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration
    +New video PSAs now available from ARRL
    +ARRL member wins Jeopardy! "Teen Tournament"
     "Big Project" schools get Best Buy Te@ch grants
     Jeff Brone, WB2JNA, wins January QST Cover Plaque Award
     DXCC Desk approves operations for DXCC credit

+Available on ARRL Audio News



The ARRL has petitioned the FCC to take its broadband over power line (BPL)
Report and Order (R&O) back to the drawing board. In a Petition for
Reconsideration filed February 7, the League called on the Commission to
"reconsider, rescind and restudy" its October 14, 2004, adoption of new Part
15 rules spelling out how BPL providers may deploy the technology on HF and
low-VHF frequencies. Asserting that the R&O fails to adequately take into
account the technology's potential to interfere with Amateur Radio and other
licensed services, the League called the FCC's action to permit BPL "a gross
policy mistake." The R&O, the ARRL said, "represents a classic case of
prejudgment" by an FCC that knew better but ignored evidence already at its

"It is readily apparent that the Commission long ago made up its mind that
it was going to permit BPL without substantial regulation, no matter what
the effect of this flawed application of old technology is on licensed radio
services," the League's petition declares. The ARRL accuses FCC Commissioner
Michael Powell and his four colleagues of deliberately authorizing "a
spectrum pollution source" that's proven to be incompatible with existing
licensed uses of the HF spectrum.

"The Commission wanted nothing to contradict its enthusiasm about BPL," the
League said, and its Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) saw to it
that evidence of the "fundamental incompatibility" between BPL and incumbent
HF radio services "was suppressed, ignored or discredited." The FCC has not
adjudicated a single interference complaint, the ARRL added, but has swept
interference complaints under the rug.

While expressing appreciation for Commissioner Michael Copps' concerns
regarding BPL's potential to interfere with Amateur Radio and his call for
quick complaint resolution, the League said his admonition "has not been
heeded by either the Enforcement Bureau or the Office of Engineering and

In the filing, which included several technical exhibits to bolster its
major points, the ARRL further argued that Powell--a self-described
"cheerleader" for the technology--the ARRL further argued that Powell should
have recused himself from voting on the R&O. The chairman, the ARRL says,
violated the FCC's own ex parte rules by attending a BPL provider's
demonstration October 12, after release of the October 14 agenda. Powell
"tainted this proceeding" by taking part in the demonstration, and that
alone is sufficient to have the Commission vacate and reconsider its action,
the ARRL alleged.

The League also said the FCC's "late and incomplete" responses to ARRL's
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests fail to show any support for
FCC's conclusions regarding interference to licensed services from BPL. The
highly redacted information release contained nothing that supports the
FCC's conclusions about BPL's interference potential and suppressed negative
recommendations from its own technical investigators, the petition says. As
a result, the League said, the Commission "failed to conduct impartial,
reasoned rulemaking."

The Commission used an unlawful "balancing test" that weighed BPL's
purported benefits against its interference to licensed services, the League
asserts, creating "a hierarchy of licensed radio services" based upon "how
much interference each service deserves." The Communications Act, the
League's petition points out, requires an objective determination from the
outset that the likelihood of harmful interference from a proposed
unlicensed service is virtually nil.

The interference mitigation rules in the R&O are both ineffective and
inequitably applied, the ARRL's petition further argues. Noting the new
rules do not require BPL systems to shut down in the event of interference
except as "a last resort," the League said the practical effect is "that
systems will never have to shut down," even if the BPL operator has not been
able to remedy ongoing harmful interference to the Amateur Service. The new
rules, the petition charges, accord priority to unlicensed BPL, "regardless
of the preclusive effect" or the duration of interference.

In its unanimous BPL decision, the Commission, the League says, has
abandoned its fundamental obligation to avoid interference in
telecommunication systems, instead requiring complainants to initiate
contact with BPL providers and "beg for resolution." The ARRL petition also
faults the Commission's adopted measurement standards.

The League's Petition for Reconsideration in ET Dockets 03-104 and 04-37 is
on the ARRL Web site,


Local telecommunication authorities in Austria have sent a "first-step"
legal notice to Linz Strom GmbH (Linz Power), calling on the utility to
"take necessary technical measures" to operate its "Speed-Web" broadband
over power line (BPL) system so it doesn't cause interference to other
telecommunication equipment. Joseph Ibinger, who heads the Upper
Austria-Salzburg field office for the Federal Ministry for Commerce,
Innovation and Technology (BMVIT), told Linz Power in late December that
interference mentioned in complaints is definitely coming from the utility's
BPL system. From the time the BPL installation was a pilot project, radio
amateurs have been among the most vocal in expressing their displeasure,
blaming BPL for causing excessive interference on HF bands throughout the
City of Linz. The Austrian Amateur Transmitter Federation (÷sterreichischer
Versuchssenderverband--÷VSV), Austria's International Amateur Radio Union
(IARU) member-society, praised the action, which the utility is very likely
to appeal.

"The Austrian Amateur Radio Society applauds this decision of local
authorities and notes that radio users have repeatedly indicated the problem
of unwanted radiation from unshielded mains wiring," said ÷VSV President
Michael Zwingl, OE3MZC. "The recent decision will be an example for
authorities in other European countries facing similar problems in BPL

In October 2003, Linz Power received a similar letter from local
telecommunications authorities asking the utility to "remove the illegal
interference" on the HF bands generated by the utility's BPL then-pilot
project. As a result, Zwingl says, the utility took legal action against

Assuming an appeal by Linz Power, the BMVIT must move Ibinger's initial
response--essentially the equivalent of a warning notice or citation--up to
the next level, and it could take up to six months to resolve the matter.
Zwingl says if the federal authorities affirm the local decision, they could
prohibit operation of the BPL system. As it now stands, the utility was
given a month to resolve the interference.

Zwingl said ÷VSV has been unable to obtain a copy of the actual decision and
was only able to obtain details of the document in January by working
through a "peoples' lawyer," essentially a legal ombudsman who runs
interference between the Austrian federal government and citizens.

According to legal ombudsman Peter Kostelka's report to Zwingl, the
telecommunication authorities cited Linz Power's use of unshielded wiring to
transport data signals, resulting in constant emissions that interfere with
short wave bands as "an undesirable byproduct" of the system.

The Linz Power BPL system boasts upward of 4000 "satisfied customers" out of
the 40,000 in its service area. It offers its basic service for Ä24 a month;
a faster version goes for Ä42 a month, both less installation charges.
Speed-Web uses BPL technology.

Zwingl said the recent official decree followed "some years of complaints
and investigations" into the Linz Power BPL project.

"We put pressure on officials to not just take measurements but also to
react by all legal means," he said. "It took us some time, but we never
agreed with the opinion of some authorities who have made a judgment between
the importance of ham radio and BPL." Zwingl maintains that Austria's
telecommunication rules conform with International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) regulations and "protect radio services and spectrum regardless of
subjective importance."

Linz Power Executive Josef Heizinger reportedly reacted calmly to the field
office decision. "We are absolutely in the right, legally, and will continue
the BPL development according to plan," he's quoted in the media. In another
interview, Heizinger declared that "simultaneous problem-free operation of
BPL and Amateur Radio equipment is possible," and he blamed a small group of
dissident radio amateurs for trying to discredit "this innovative and
economical technology."

Linz Strom blames the few radio interference problems its system has caused
on "defective equipment," and says it's resolved those cases promptly.

÷VSV continues to insist that in its current form BPL--also known in
German-speaking countries as "Internet from the Electrical Outlet"--is
incompatible with HF reception.


Cadets from the 1132nd Air Training Corps Squadron from Stalham High School
in Norfolk, England, made contact via Amateur Radio February 2 with the
International Space Station. The direct VHF school group contact between
GB2ATC and NA1SS was sponsored by the Amateur Radio on the International
Space Station (ARISS) program. ISS Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao,
KE5BRW, responded to 20 questions from the cadets, who ranged in age from 13
to 18. He told the cadets that while he and crewmate Salizhan Sharipov did
not witness the December 29 tsunami, they have been able to view the
aftermath from more than 200 miles above Earth.

"We were able to get some pretty striking photographs of the damage," Chiao
told the high schoolers. "It was really a tragedy for us to witness." He
explained that it was not until several days after the disaster that the
spacecraft's orbit brought the crew over that part of the world during

Another cadet wanted to know how the Expedition 10 crew celebrated the
arrival of the new year.

"We marked New Year's Eve as we went around the earth and marked the big
cities," Chiao responded. "Of course we didn't have very much to toast with,
but we did have some chocolates to enjoy."

Cadets also asked what inspired Chiao to become an astronaut and who were
his role models. He told the students that seeing the early Apollo moon
landings in the late 1960s stimulated his interest in pursuing a career in
space. He cited astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins as
his early heroes.

The youngsters also asked what the crew members ate and drank in space.
Chiao told the cadets that there was both American and Russian-style cuisine
aboard. As for beverages, he mentioned juices, coffee and tea.
"Unfortunately, that's about all we have," he quipped. "We don't have any of
the good stuff on board."

Organizing the QSO on the local level was the squadron's commander Terry
Owen, G4PSH. The Radio Society of Great Britain's (RSGB) mobile radio
communications demonstration vehicle GB4FUN was on hand to back up the Earth
station in the event anything broke down. Fortunately, that did not happen.
Owen called the ARISS QSO "a fantastic opportunity" for his squadron's
members that would help with projects the schools were doing on space

The RSGB's Carlos Eavis, G0AKI, assisted with the contact and also garnered
a post-contact interview with the BBC. "I think it shows them science has a
value, not only as a teaching aid but also in everyday life," he told the
Beeb. "We're surrounded by technology. They need to understand that physics
does apply to real life." An area newspaper also reported on the ARISS
school group QSO.

ARISS <> is an international educational outreach
with US participation by ARRL, NASA and AMSAT.


If you've never been to Dayton Hamvention, then this is the year. That's
because Hamvention will host the 2005 ARRL National Convention May 20-22. A
special feature of the event will be "ARRL Expo 2005," a separate area at
Hara Arena that will highlight what the League means to Amateur Radio.

"ARRL Expo 2005 will be a special feature of the Convention," says ARRL
Marketing Manager Bob Inderbitzen, NQ1R, who's helping to coordinate the
event. "ARRL Expo will showcase ARRL membership benefits and services as
well as the activities of ARRL volunteers. Visitors will be able to meet
ARRL volunteers and staff knowledgeable on a wide variety of topics, and, of
course, have their cards checked for operating awards."

Hamvention has donated a separate section of floor space for ARRL Expo 2005.
The large area is convenient to the flea market and indoor exhibit
areas--and it's just a short walk from the Ballarena entrance to Hara Arena.
While the Expo area will complement the traditional ARRL concession in North
Hall, it will operate independently.

ARRL Expo will offer the opportunity to meet and greet ARRL staff members
and volunteers--including representatives of DXCC, the Amateur Radio
Emergency Service and other ARRL entities and programs that span the wide
variety of interests that comprise Amateur Radio.

The National Association of Radio and Telecommunications Engineers (NARTE)
will be attending Hamvention as guests of the ARRL National Convention. ARRL
and NARTE have a memorandum of understanding to support mutually beneficial
programs and activities. NARTE representatives will be on hand at the ARRL
exhibit and will provide FCC General Radiotelephone Operator License (GROL)
examinations to interested applicants. The testing fee, not included in the
Hamvention admission price, is $40. Register or get more information from
the NARTE Web site or by calling NARTE toll-free at 800-89-NARTE

Inderbitzen notes that ARRL Expo 2005 will be the place to pick up a free
"ARRL Passport" to get a 2005 ARRL National Convention keepsake when making
qualifying purchases from participating retailers at Hamvention.

The ARRL ad hoc National Convention Committee has been meeting since last
July to help make Dayton Hamvention 2005 a memorable ARRL National
Convention. New England Division Director Tom Frenaye, K1KI, chairs the
committee. Members are ARRL Great Lakes Director Jim Weaver, K8JE, Dakota
Division Director Jay Bellows, K0QB, Midwest Division Director Wade
Walstrom, W0EJ, and ARRL Sales and Marketing Manager Dennis Motschenbacher,

The theme of Dayton Hamvention 2005 is "Bringing hams together from around
the world." Upward of 25,000 visitors from the US and elsewhere on the globe
make the annual pilgrimage to Hamvention, where socializing is a big part of
the fun.

In addition to the popular indoor and outdoor exhibits and vendors, Dayton
Hamvention 2005 will feature a full slate of forums and other activities. As
they say, "If you can't find it at Dayton, you'll never find it." It's not
too soon to purchase tickets for Dayton Hamvention 2005. Early birds can
save $5 by getting their tickets online at the Hamvention Web site
<>. Hamvention has eliminated the on-line handling

Check the ARRL National Convention at Dayton Hamvention Web page
<> for information updates.


The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) has again said "no" to four Ohio
radio amateurs seeking to visit Desecheo Island (KP5), a prized DX location
that's on the top-ten "most-needed list" for DXCC. The denial came in a
letter from the FWS to US Rep Mike Turner (R-OH) of Dayton, who acted on
behalf of well-known DXer and contester Harry Flasher, AC8G, and three other
members of the South West Ohio DX Association (SWODXA). Flasher was on
Desecheo in the 1980s.

A small island about 14 miles off the northwestern corner of Puerto Rico,
Desecheo Island is a national wildlife refuge and under FWS jurisdiction.
The FWS told Turner that the Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge "is closed to
all public entry for safety reasons due to unexploded ordinance (artillery
shells) in the area." The island once was the site of war games. The FWS has
not issued Amateur Radio permits since 1993.

As it has in earlier denials, the FWS also raised the specter of problems
with Caribbean drug traffickers in turning down the latest request. The FWS
also has continued to deny access to Navassa Island (KP1), over which it
also has jurisdiction. Navassa is on the most-needed list for DXCC as well.

The SWODXA group had requested access to a small landing beach--a manmade
gravel patch the group feels is far away from potential contact with
unexploded artillery shells. ARRL Ohio Section Manager Joe Phillips, K8QOE,
said the group has not given up its attempts to gain permission to land on
and operate from Desecheo Island.--Joe Phillips, K8QOE


According to 2004 survey results published in the January/February issue of
The DX Magazine <>, North Korea (P5) remains atop
DXers' "most-wanted" lists for DXCC.

"It was a real surprise to see North Korea at the top of the most-wanted
list," commented The Daily DX <> Editor Bernie
McClenny, W3UR. The most-recent P5 operation was by Ed Giorgadze, P5/4L4FN,
in 2001 and 2002, during which he logged more than 16,000 QSOs.

Number two on the list is Andaman and Nicobar Islands (VU4), although a
post-survey DXpedition in December likely diminished worldwide demand,
despite being cut short by the tsunami.

In third place--but topping the list in four US time zones--was Scarborough
Reef (BS7). Fourth is Lakshadweep (VU7), and fifth is Yemen (7O). A
DXpedition set for this month from number six Peter Island (3Y/P) could
blunt demand for that rare one. Rounding out the top 10 are Navassa Island
(KP1) and Desecheo Island (KP5), both under jurisdiction of the US Fish and
Wildlife Service which has denied visitation permission, Bouvet (3Y/B) and
Kure Island (KH7K).

McClenny, who also edits "How's DX?" for QST, notes there's still a large
demand for VU4, but he expressed guarded optimism that the VU4RBI/VU4NRO
DXpedition's emergency communication operation following the December 29
earthquake and tsunami would make Indian authorities more willing to allow
future DXpeditions. "Keep you fingers crossed," he said.


Solar Seer Tad "House of the Rising Sunspot" Cook, K7RA, Seattle,
Washington, reports: All solar activity indicators rose this week, but not
by much. The average daily sunspot number for the week rose 4.4 points to
41.3, the average daily solar flux was up 11.6 points to 85.1, the average
planetary A index rose 4 points to 15.1, and the average daily mid-latitude
A index rose 2.2 points to 10.6.

Monday through Wednesday, February 7-9, had unsettled to active geomagnetic
activity. Tuesday was the most disturbed day, with a planetary A index of
34, and mid-latitude A index of 27. At 0300 UTC February 8, the planetary K
index reached a high of 6, and at 1800 UTC the Alaska college K index toped
out at the very high value of 8. There was a K index of 7 the previous day,
and the college A indices for February 7-10 were 50, 71, 45 and 30--all high

The higher A and K numbers this week were caused by a robust solar wind
stream. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field pointed south, so Earth was
vulnerable to these particles. When the IMF points north, Earth is shielded,
and it didn't swing north until February 10--a quiet day.

Currently solar flux is expected to stay around 115 for February 11-12, then
drop a few points over the next few days. Solar flux could drop below 100
around February 19.

Sunspot numbers for February 3 through 9 were 23, 22, 22, 47, 62, 53 and 60,
with a mean of 41.3. The 10.7 cm flux was 83, 82.1, 94.6, 97, 103.1, 108.2
and 108.6, with a mean of 96.7. Estimated planetary A indices were 8, 3, 4,
9, 23, 34 and 25, with a mean of 15.1. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were
5, 2, 1, 6, 19, 27 and 14, with a mean of 10.6.



* This weekend on the radio: The North American Sprint (CW), the KCJ Topband
Contest, the CQ WW RTTY WPX Contest, SARL Kid's Day, SARL Field Day Contest,
the Asia-Pacific Spring Sprint (CW), the Dutch PACC Contest, the YLRL YL-OM
Contest (SSB), the Louisiana QSO Party, the OMISS QSO Party, the FISTS
Winter Sprint, the British Columbia QSO Challenge and the RSGB First 1.8 MHz
Contest (CW) are the weekend of February 12-13. The ARRL School Club Roundup
is February 14-19. The AGCW Semi-Automatic Key Evening and the RSGB 80-Meter
Club Championship (Data) are February 16. JUST AHEAD: The ARRL International
DX Contest (CW) is the weekend of February 19-20. The RSGB 80-Meter Club
Championship (CW) is February 24. The Russian PSK Worldwide Contest is the
weekend of February 25-26. See the ARRL Contest Branch page
<> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the Technician Licensing course (EC-010) and the new Analog
Electronics course (EC-012) remains open through Sunday, February 13.
Classes begin Friday, February 25. With the assistance of a mentor,
Technician Licensing students learn everything they need to know to pass the
FCC Technician class license examination. Analog Electronics students will
learn about the use of instrumentation, Kirchhoff's Laws, diodes, rectifier
circuits, bipolar and field effect transistors, various amplifier
configurations, filters, timers, op amps and voltage regulators. Most
lessons include a design problem and optional construction project. To learn
more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education (CCE) Web page
<> or contact the ARRL Certification and Continuing
Education Program <>;.

* Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration: Registration
for the ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level II on-line course
(EC-002) opens Monday, February 14, at 1201 AM EST and will remain open
until all available seats have been filled or through the February 19-20
weekend--whichever comes first. Class begins Friday, March 4. THIS IS THE
FINAL YEAR OF GRANT-SUBSIDIZED CLASSES! Thanks to our grant sponsors--the
Corporation for National and Community Service and the United Technologies
Corporation--the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be
reimbursed after successful completion of the course. Radio amateurs 55 and
up are strongly encouraged to participate. During this registration period,
seats are being offered to ARRL members on a first-come, first-served basis.
To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web
page <>. For more information, contact Emergency
Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG,; 860-594-0340.

* New video PSAs now available from ARRL: Following up on the introduction
last month of two new audio public service announcements promoting Amateur
Radio to the general public, the ARRL is now offering video PSAs. The new
videos underscore how, in the wake of recent disasters, ham radio operators
are able to pass emergency traffic when other communication systems fail.
These "mini-commercials" for ham radio already are airing on dozens of
stations across the US, and the numbers keep growing. There's a 30-second
MPEG (nearly 2.7 MB) file on the ARRL Web site
<>. While MPEGs are good enough
to view on a PC, they don't have sufficient resolution for broadcast
television. To obtain a video in higher-resolution DVD+r format, contact
ARRL Media and Public Relations Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP,
<>;. Include your name and address and indicate on which TV
outlet you will place the spot. ARRL thanks Jerry Martin, KC9BDA, for his
efforts in turning the great audio into an impressive video! The radio/audio
PSAs remain available on the ARRL Web site as well. There's a 30-second spot
<> and a 60-second spot
<>. To download, right click
once on the selection and choose SAVE TARGET.

* ARRL member wins Jeopardy! "Teen Tournament": Sixteen-year-old ARRL member
Michael Braun, K3LNT, of Silver Spring, Maryland, picked up the $75,000
grand prize as winner of the Jeopardy! "Teen Tournament" February 8. "Most
of my money will be in savings for college and future expenses," Braun said
when asked what he'll do with his financial windfall. "However, I may use a
small fraction for radio equipment." A high school junior, Braun holds a
General ticket, enjoys HF operating and is a member of the Montgomery
Amateur Radio Club (MARC). He also told Jeopardy! that he hopes to
eventually work for a computer company and considers Microsoft's Bill Gates
"somewhat of a role model." Sony Pictures produces Jeopardy!

* "Big Project" schools get Best Buy Te@ch grants: Two ARRL Amateur Radio
Education and Technology Program (ETP) <>
participating schools were the Liberal Arts and Science Academy of Austin at
Lyndon Baines Johnson High School (LBJ) in Austin, Texas, and Orono Middle
School in Orono, Maine. Lead teachers Ronny Risinger, KC5EES, at LBJ, and
Richard Glueck, N1MDZ, at Orono say they'll use the grant funds to purchase
laptop computers suitable for field work and other applications. ARRL ETP
Coordinator Mark Spencer, WA8SME, says he hopes other Big Project schools
will consider taking advantage of the Te@ch awards and other grant programs.
The list of all schools receiving Te@ch grants is available on the Best Buy
Web site
<>. The
ETP reaches more than 3600 students, exposing them to a collective total of
some 184,000 hours of involvement in "wireless technology literacy." The
League invites contributions to the ARRL Education and Technology Program
via its secure donation Web site

* Jeff Brone, WB2JNA, wins January QST Cover Plaque Award: The winner of the
QST Cover Plaque Award for January is Jeff Brone, WB2JNA, for his article
"EchoLink for Beginners." Congratulations, Jeff! The winner of the QST Cover
Plaque award--given to the author or authors of the best article in each
issue--is determined by a vote of ARRL members on the QST Cover Plaque Poll
Web page <>. Cast a ballot for
your favorite article in the February issue by February 28.

* DXCC Desk approves operations for DXCC credit: The ARRL DXCC Desk has
approved the R1MVI (Malyj Vysotskij Island) operation of September 10-13,
2004, and the Chesterfield Island (TX9) operation of October 2004 for DXCC
credit. For more information, visit the DXCC Web page
<>. "DXCC Frequently Asked Questions
<>," can answer most questions about the
DXCC program. Current ARRL DX bulletins are available on the W1AW DX
Bulletins for 2004 page <>.

* Correction: In The ARRL Letter, Vol 24, No 05 (Feb 4, 2005), we misspelled
the name "Kirchhoff," as in Kirchhoff's Laws.

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main St,
Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of interest
to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise,
and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <> for the latest news,
updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site <> offers
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Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to
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==>How to Get The ARRL Letter
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The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

Much of the ARRL Letter content is also available in audio form in ARRL Audio News.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to The ARRL Letter and The American Radio Relay League.

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