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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 25, No. 30
July 28, 2006


* +Accommodate ham radio's BPL concerns, congressman, ARRL ask FCC
* +New EmComm bill passes US House, includes role for ham radio
* +Much-heralded CubeSat launch attempt fails
* +Ham and astronaut Chuck Brady, N4BQW, SK
* +ARRL planning first online auction
* +Yet another new DXCC entity!
* +Wildlife researchers seek help from hams, monitor enthusiasts
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
    +FCC says Katrina Panel recommendations apply to all types of disasters
    +SSTV tests planned from ISS, school contacts set for German astronaut
     Indonesian radio amateurs assist in tsunami response
     Radio amateurs in India fill communication gap following terror
     Robert M. Richardson, W4UCH, SK

+Available on ARRL Audio News <>

==>Delivery problems: First see FAQ
<>, then e-mail
==>Editorial questions or comments only: Rick Lindquist, N1RL,


US Rep Mike Ross, WD5DVR (D-AR), and the ARRL have appealed to the FCC to
accommodate the Broadband Over Power Line interference concerns of Amateur
Radio operators. Ross's letter to FCC Chairman Kevin J. Martin and the
League's plea to individual commissioners and a face-to-face meeting with
one FCC member come in advance of the Commission's consideration of two
significant BPL-related actions.

"As you reconsider the BPL rules, please accommodate the very reasonable
interests of Amateur Radio operators in avoiding interference in residential
and mobile deployment," Ross asked Martin. "It is in the best interest of
our emergency preparedness efforts to do so."

The FCC will meet in open session Thursday, August 3, to consider the United
Power Line Council's Petition for Declaratory Ruling (WC Docket 06-10)
regarding the classification of BPL Internet access service as an
"information service." The FCC also will consider a Memorandum Opinion and
Order in response to petitions for reconsideration -- 17 in all, one from
the ARRL -- of the rules that apply to BPL systems (ET 04-37).

In letters to each FCC member on the League's behalf July 26, ARRL General
Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, spelled out what he called "a win-win solution"
to the BPL interference issue. "Fortunately, as the result of extensive
field studies and measurements conducted by ARRL, the Commission has an
opportunity now to fix the rules before BPL deployment becomes widespread,"
Imlay said, "and before interference becomes an impossible enforcement
burden and a substantial threat to the public service, emergency and
disaster relief communications provided by the Amateur Service."

Imlay asserted the FCC does not have to choose between permitting BPL and
protecting licensed radio services. The FCC only needs to do two things:
Require that BPL providers only utilize frequencies above 30 MHz on overhead
medium-voltage power lines, and make no use of Amateur Radio spectrum on
underground lines and lines to customer premises. If the Commission does,
Imlay said, any remaining interference issues "become manageable on a
case-by-case basis."

Imlay explained that BPL systems using DS2 chipsets or architecture
have caused untenable instances of harmful interference to Amateur Radio
operators. "Unfortunately, the Commission's Enforcement Bureau has been
unresponsive in addressing a substantial number of BPL interference cases,"
he said.

"By notable contrast," Imlay continued, BPL systems that don't make use of
HF spectrum on overhead lines avoid interference problems. He pointed out
that the Current Technologies BPL system, which uses spectrum above 30 MHz,
"has proven relatively benign toward Amateur Radio." The Motorola BPL system
makes no use of HF at all on medium voltage lines "and is completely benign
toward Amateur Radio," Imlay said.

In his letter, Ross noted that Amateur Radio was "instrumental in providing
interoperability communications in the aftermath of hurricanes Katrina, Rita
and Wilma last year." Infrastructure-free long-distance communication is
provided "on a volunteer basis and cannot be duplicated," the congressman
told the FCC chairman.

In their respective communications, Ross and Imlay emphasized that Amateur
Radio operators are not opposed to BPL per se. They are opposed to
interference and to the rules the FCC adopted in 2004 that "did not do
anything to prevent inevitable, harmful interference from BPL systems" that
employ HF spectrum on unshielded, overhead medium-voltage lines, Imlay said.

"This is the crux of the problem, and it is a very substantial one," Imlay

Earlier this week, Imlay was able to meet with FCC commissioner Robert
McDowell and members of his staff to express Amateur Radio's concerns about
interference problems the current Part 15 rules governing BPL fail to
adequately address.

"The Amateur Radio Service and ARRL -- the National Association for Amateur
Radio needs your support in arriving at a solution that meets the needs of
all interested parties," Imlay concluded.


A bill to enhance emergency communication at the Department of Homeland
Security (DHS) includes Amateur Radio operators as part of an overall effort
to provide interoperability among responders. The 21st Century Emergency
Communications Act of 2006 (HR 5852), an amendment to the Homeland Security
Act of 2002, passed the US House this week on a 414-2 vote and has gone to
the Senate. Its sponsor, Rep David G. Reichert (R-WA) -- who chairs the
Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Science and Technology -- says his
legislation is designed "to improve the ability of emergency responders to
communicate with each other" -- interoperability.

"Until the events of September 11, 2001, many people in this nation believed
and assumed that first responders from different disciplines and
jurisdictions could actually talk to each other," Reichert -- a former
police officer -- told the House in support of his bill. "It wasn't
happening. It is still not happening today. Unfortunately, that was not the
case then, and, as demonstrated by the inadequate responses to Hurricane
Katrina, that is not the case today."

Reichert told his colleagues that the inability of first responders to
communicate with each another effectively led to the loss of many lives
along the US Gulf Coast last year. "This is simply unacceptable," he said.

His measure also would require the DHS to strengthen its efforts to improve
emergency communications. HR 5852 calls for Amateur Radio operators to be
part of a "Regional Emergency Communications Coordination Working Group"
(RECC Working Group) that would be attached to each regional Department of
Homeland Security office. The RECC Working Groups would advise federal and
state homeland security officials.

In addition to radio amateurs, membership in the RECC Working Groups would
include state and local officials; law enforcement, first responders such as
fire departments; 911 centers; hospitals; ambulance services; communications
equipment vendors, telephone, wireless satellite, broadband and cable
service providers; public utilities; broadcasters; emergency evacuation
transit services; state emergency managers, homeland security directors or
representatives of state administrative agencies; local emergency managers
or homeland security directors, and "other emergency response providers or
emergency support providers as deemed appropriate."

Federal government representatives to the RECC Working Groups would include
representatives from the DHS "and other federal departments and agencies
with responsibility for coordinating interoperable emergency communications"
with state, local, and tribal governments.

According to the bill, the RECC Working Groups would function to assess the
survivability, sustainability, and interoperability of local emergency
communications systems to meet the goals of the National Emergency
Communications Report. That report would recommend how the US could
"accelerate the deployment of interoperable emergency communications

The RECC Working Groups also would be tasked with ensuring a process to
coordinate the establishment of "effective multi-jurisdictional,
multi-agency emergency communications networks" that could be brought into
play following acts of terrorism, natural disasters and other emergencies.

HR 5852 has been referred to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and
Governmental Affairs.


A much-heralded attempt to launch 15 CubeSats built by 11 universities and
one private company failed this week. Fourteen of the tiny spacecraft
carried Amateur Radio transmit-only payloads.

The Dnepr-1LV rocket lifted off from Russia's Baikonur Cosmodrome in
Kazakhstan at 1943 UTC on July 26. Various accounts indicate that the
mission went awry less than two minutes after liftoff when the first stage
failed to separate on time, causing an emergency shutdown of the rocket's
main engine. Reports vary on how far downrange -- and just where -- the
vehicle fell. One said the Dnepr dropped to Earth some 15 km from the launch
site, while another put the distance at 190 km. A third account said the
Dnepr dropped into the Indian Ocean.

Originally set for June 28, the launch had been postponed until July 26. The
CubeSat project was a collaboration between California Polytechnic State
University-San Luis Obispo and Stanford University's Space Systems
Development Laboratory. All of the CubeSats were designed and built by
students at various universities in the US and elsewhere in the world. The
CubeSat roster included AeroCube-1, CP-1, CP-2, ICE Cube-1, ICE Cube-2, ION,

Thirteen of the satellites were to have downlinks in the Amateur Radio
satellite allocation between 435 and 438 MHz, and one was to operate on
145.980 MHz. None of the spacecraft carried a transponder. Transmitter power
outputs ranged from 10 mW to 2 W.

The Dnepr was the second to launch this month from Baikonur's Area 109.
Other payloads included BelKA, the first Belarusian satellite, and three
other microsatellites. According to Satellite Launch Report, the original
Dnepr launcher was replaced by a different one in June after a problem was
detected in the original vehicle's digital flight control system.

The Dnepr launch failure was said to be the first in seven orbital launch
attempts. The Dnepr vehicle is a repurposed SS-18 "Satan" three-stage
intercontinental ballistic missile, originally designed in the 1980s to
compete with the US Peacekeeper missile. The START 2 treaty allowed up to
150 of the missiles to be converted for use as space launchers.

The Russian space agency has convened a special commission to look into the
cause of the malfunction.


Retired space shuttle astronaut and DXer Chuck Brady, N4BQW, of Oak Harbor,
Washington, died July 23 following a lengthy illness. He was 54. During his
years as an active astronaut in the 1990s, Brady was among the pioneers of
SAREX (Shuttle Amateur Radio EXperiment). An ARRL member, he was active on
ham radio during the 16-day STS-78 shuttle mission in 1996, then the longest
ever. In 1997 he became NASA's chief for space station astronaut training.
ARRL Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program
liaison Rosalie White, K1STO, says Brady was a radio amateur long before he
took part in SAREX.

"During his shuttle flight, he spent more hours on the ham airwaves than
probably he should have, much to the pleasure of hams worldwide," she said.
"He joked that he'd rather make ham radio contacts than take part in the
shuttle's scheduled daily medical tests, such as providing saliva samples."

Following his career as an active astronaut, Brady went on to take part in
several popular DXpeditions. According to The Daily DX and QST "How's DX?"
Editor Bernie McClenny, W3UR, Brady activated some of the rarer American
Pacific islands including Kure Island, Palmyra and Jarvis Island, Midway
Island, Wake Island, Baker and Howland Island and Kingman Reef.

"Probably Chuck's most notable operation was that of 3Y0C from Bouvet
Island," McClenny recounts. "This one was kept totally secret until he
showed up on the air in January 2001. Later that year Chuck was the speaker
at the Dayton DX Dinner."

"Chuck will surely be missed by his many friends around the world, and many
will remember him as a kind a loving human being," McClenny said.

A physician, Brady held the rank of captain in the US Navy. A native of
North Carolina, he packed a lot of activities into his all-too-short
lifetime. In addition to ham radio, he enjoyed canoeing, kayaking, tennis,
and cycling.

Brady graduated from Duke University Medical School in 1975. He received his
training as a flight surgeon after joining the US Navy in 1986, and he was
flight surgeon for the Blue Angels Navy flight demonstration squadron from
1989 until 1990. In 1992, NASA selected Brady as an astronaut candidate, and
he qualified as a mission specialist for shuttle flights, ultimately logging
more than 405 hours in space.

White notes that compared to today's long-term missions aboard the ISS,
shuttle missions such as Brady's were quite short. "But he saw into the
future," she said, "and he predicted that Amateur Radio would be a very
important means for astronauts to feel as though they were in touch with the
world while staying on-orbit for months on end -- and so it is."

Survivors include Brady's fiancé Susan, their four-year-old son Charlie, and
a sister. A military service is planned.


The ARRL may be giving eBay and the other auction sites a little competition
in the Amateur Radio arena this fall when the first ARRL Online Auction gets
under way. Auction proceeds will help to support the League's educational
services and programs. The event now is in the planning stages, says ARRL
Business Services Manager Deb Jahnke, K1DAJ.

"We will soon embark on an exciting new venture," Jahnke said in providing
the broad strokes of the online auction to ARRL Headquarters staff members.
Jahnke and her Business Services team will organize and manage the event,
which is planned for late October -- the exact dates haven't been set yet --
and she promises it will be lots of fun.

"This will not be just another boring auction, because we plan to include
many unique and special items related to Amateur Radio," she said. "We are
hoping to offer items that will interest our audience, ranging from
DXpedition vacation rentals to restored Collins 75A4s." Jahnke says this
inaugural online auction will be limited to 100 items.

The auction will be open to all -- ARRL members and otherwise. Bidders just
need online access to take part. "With an online auction, we can reach
potential bidders across the nation and around the world," Jahnke pointed

Jahnke says she anticipates that the online auction will be open for about
two weeks, and participants will need to register in advance. At this stage,
she says, the auction planners are seeking additional ideas but no auction
booty as yet. Contact Jahnke via e-mail <>;.


A recent addition to the DXCC rules has led to the designation of Swain's
Island (KH8) as the 337th DXCC entity. A brief inaugural DXpedition
operating under the call sign KH8SI was to get under way soon.

In June, the ARRL DXCC Desk announced the addition of a Paragraph (c) under
Section II, DX List Criteria, 1. Political Entities of the DXCC Rules: "The
Entity contains a permanent population, is administered by a local
government and is located at least 800 km from its parent. To satisfy the
'permanent population' and 'administered by a local government' criteria of
this subsection, an Entity must be listed on either (a) the US Department of
State's list of 'Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty' as having a
local 'Administrative Center,' or (b) the United Nations' list of
'Non-Self-Governing Territories.'"

The new language effectively reclassified American Samoa as a political
entity for DXCC purposes. Subsequently, the DX Advisory Committee and the
Awards Committee concurred with a request, accompanied by substantiating
evidence, and added Swain's Island to the DXCC List as the first "separation
entity" from American Samoa.

"The distance between American Samoa and Swain's Island has been determined
to be in excess of 350 km as required by DXCC Rules Section II, Paragraph 2,
Section b)," the DXCC Desk said. Contacts made with Swain's Island on or
after 0001 UTC on July 22, 2006, will count for DXCC credit.

For more information, including the DXCC Reference Number for Swain's
Island, contact the DXCC Desk <>;.


Wildlife researchers are asking radio amateurs and VHF monitoring
enthusiasts to help listen for radio tag signals from migrating birds. A
non-profit organization in New Mexico wants to find the wintering grounds of
the burrowing owl, which summers in the grasslands of Kirtland Air Force

"Twenty-eight of the birds have been fitted with pulsing radio-tags near 172
MHz, and attempts will be made to track them by aircraft to see if they go
east toward Texas, west to California, or south to Mexico," says ARRL
Amateur Radio Direction Finding (ARDF) Coordinator Joe Moell, K0OV. "It's
likely that aircraft will lose contact with most of the owls, so volunteers
throughout southwestern states and northern Mexico are being asked to listen
for them."

Moell said July 25 that the birds "will start moving any day now."

Meanwhile, researchers at two Toronto universities are radiotagging 20 young
purple martins at a breeding colony in Edinboro, Pennsylvania.

"These beautiful birds are expected to start flying south in mid-August,
probably to winter grounds in South America," Moell says. "Hams in southern
states from Texas through Florida are asked to be listening and possibly
detect the flyovers."

He says those living in the migration zones and can receive 172 MHz signals
can help. "If you have radio-direction finding equipment for VHF, so much
the better," he adds.

Moell's "Homing In" Web site <> has much more
information on these projects. The site includes frequencies and equipment
suggestions as well as a descriptions of the unique characteristics of
wildlife tags to help listeners distinguish them from other signals they may
encounter at 172 MHz. The site also tells how to join the BIOTRACKERS
mailing list for the latest updates and discussions of wildlife-tracking


Sunspot seeker Tad "Who Let the Spots Out?" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington,
reports: There wasn't much change from last week to this week, with average
daily sunspot numbers down by less than five points to 14.6. This doesn't
result in high enough MUF (maximum usable frequency) values to see much
propagation on the highest HF bands, such as 10, 12 and 15 meters. But even
with a low MUF, there is still occasional long-distance propagation on 10
and 6 meters.

Over the next week, don't expect any huge increase in sunspot numbers. We
are near the bottom of the solar cycle and in the summer season, which is
not as interesting as fall or spring for working long distances. But if the
predictions are correct, a little more than a year from now the sunspot
count should be heading higher than it is now, and the MUF will rise with

Currently, early Friday, July 28, there is a strong solar wind stream
hitting Earth, and the planetary K index is at 6. This should decline over
the next couple of days, but then come back again on Tuesday. Lower
geomagnetic indices generally mean better HF propagation, or at least not as
poor as it is commonly when the K index is high. The predicted planetary A
index for Friday through Tuesday, July 28 to August 1 is 15, 5, 5, 12 and

For more information concerning radio propagation, see the ARRL Technical
Information Service Propagation page

Sunspot numbers for July 20 through 26 were 14, 12, 0, 21, 19, 16 and 20,
with a mean of 14.6. 10.7 cm flux was 72.2, 72.6, 73.6, 76.5, 77, 75.5, and
74.7, with a mean of 74.6. Estimated planetary A indices were 3, 2, 4, 4, 4,
6 and 6, with a mean of 4.1. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 2, 1, 3,
4, 7, 5 and 5, with a mean of 3.9.



* This weekend on the radio: The North American QSO Party (CW), the ARRL UHF
Contest, the TARA Grid Dip Shindig, the 10-10 International Summer Contest
(SSB), the European HF Championship, the RSGB RoPoCo 2 and the SARL HF Phone
Contest are the weekend of August 5-6. The NAQCC Straight Key/Bug Sprint is
August 9. JUST AHEAD: The WAE DX Contest (CW) and the Maryland-DC QSO Party
are the weekend of August 12-13. The ARRL 10 GHz and Up Contest, the North
American QSO Party (SSB), the SARTG World Wide RTTY Contest, and the New
Jersey QSO Party are the weekend of August 19-20. The Run for the Bacon QRP
Contest is August 21, See the ARRL Contest Branch page
<> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration remains open through Sunday, September 3, for these ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education (CCE) online courses. Classes begin
Friday September 15. Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level 2
(EC-002), Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level 3 (EC-003), Antenna
Modeling (EC-004), HF Digital Communications (EC-005), VHF/UHF -- Life
Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) and Radio Frequency Propagation (EC-011). These
courses also will open for registration Friday, September 1, for classes
beginning Friday, October 20. To learn more, visit the CCE Course Listing
page <> or contact the CCE Department

* FCC says Katrina Panel recommendations apply to all types of disasters:
The FCC advises commenters on its Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM)
regarding Hurricane Katrina's impact on communication systems (EB Docket
06-119) that the Katrina independent panel's recommendations apply to all
types of disasters, natural or otherwise. "Parties should also discuss
whether the panel's recommendations are broad enough to take into account
the diverse topography of our nation, the susceptibility of a region to a
particular type of disaster, and the multitude of communications
capabilities a region may possess," the Commission said July 26 in a public
notice. Some of the Hurricane Katrina Independent Panel's recommendations
concern possible changes to Amateur Radio Part 97 rules. The NPRM further
offers three specific areas for consideration: Waiver of Amateur Radio and
license-exempt rules, permitting transmissions necessary to meet essential
communications needs; waiver of application filing deadlines, something the
FCC did last fall for amateurs living in hurricane-stricken states; and a
streamlined STA process. Comments are due Monday, August 7. Reply comments
(comments on comments filed) are due by Monday, August 21. Interested
parties may file comments and view the comments of others via the Electronic
Comment Filing System (ECFS) <>. In either case,
enter "06-119" in the "Proceeding" field (without quotation marks but
including the hyphen).

* SSTV tests planned from ISS, school contacts set for German astronaut: The
Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program
<> reports that ISS Expedition 13 Commander Pavel
Vinogradov, RV3BS, has set up a camera to use for slow-scan television
(SSTV) from the ISS. Vinogradov plans to soon test the system over Moscow on
144.49 MHz — perhaps as early as this weekend — and radio amateurs within
range are encouraged to receive the SSTV images. For now, the SSTV system
will only be used to transmit. Due to various issues with 144.49 MHz in
Europe, the European and US ARISS teams will be recommending frequencies for
use over other countries. Responding to a request from the European Space
Agency (ESA), ARISS has scheduled school group contacts at three
ESA-organized events for new Expedition 13 astronaut Thomas Reiter, DF4TR
(photo). The Greek Minister of Education asked for a QSO with Reiter during
the ESA Space Camp in Greece July 29. This is expected to be a major event,
with the minister asking an interview question, and Greek national TV
covering the occasion. A QSO with visitors at the Museum of the Swiss Air
Force is set for September 22, while Reiter will speak via ham radio with
visitors to Germany's Mannheim Museum on November 20. The first German
astronaut to be a part of an ISS crew, Reiter likely will use the space
station's German call sign, DP0ISS.

* Indonesian radio amateurs assist in tsunami response: Amateur Radio
volunteers in Indonesia assisted authorities in West Java and Central Java
provinces in recovery efforts following an earthquake and subsequent tsunami
along Java's southern coast July 17. Wyn Purwinto, AB2QV, a native of Java
who's been visiting his homeland this month, said he was in his car when the
earthquake struck. "Only those in top levels of Jakarta's towers felt things
shake a bit," he said. He reports that Halim Dani, YC2TJV, led a volunteer
group in Central Java Province, to work with local authorities and the
government to evacuate and aid victims along the beaches of South Kebumen.
Residents of nearly 200 miles of south-facing coastal areas were affected by
the tsunami. Hundreds of people were reported dead, many still are missing
and upward of 10,000 left homeless as a result of the earthquake and
tsunami. Purwinto says he and his family are safe in the capital city of
Jakarta. He reports ORARI -- the International Amateur Radio Union
member-society -- prepared to send Amateur Radio teams to several beaches
along the south coast.

* Radio amateurs in India fill communication gap following terror bombings:
After terrorists set off explosions on packed commuter trains in Mumbai
(Bombay) during the evening rush hour July 11, Amateur Radio operators
helped pass health-and-welfare messages to family members and fill other
communication needs. News accounts say that with 8.5 million cell phones
competing for the same spectrum, circuits quickly became overwhelmed with
passengers calling family members or vice versa. Ham radio operators stepped
in to make the connection and, working with the Bombay Municipal
Corporation, helped to keep authorities informed as well. They also were
able to provide information to hospitals on medical needs. Nearly 200 people
were killed by the blasts, and hundreds more were injured. Police have
arrested three people in connection with the attacks. An IBN-CNN report
quoted Mumbai Amateur Radio Society Disaster Communications Team member
Zyros Zend, VU2ZRS, as saying, "I love Mumbai. We consider it a moral duty
to sign on to the air when disaster strikes. In fact, we carry our handhelds
and rush to the nearest spot of crisis." In 2001, Zend -- who bakes fortune
cookies for a living -- was among the many Mumbai radio amateurs responding
to help in the aftermath of a major earthquake in Gujurat.

* Robert M. Richardson, W4UCH, SK: Robert M. "Bob" Richardson, W4UCH, of Ft
Lauderdale, Florida, died June 29. He was 79. An aviation executive, fighter
pilot and inventor, Richardson contributed several articles to QST and to
Ham Radio magazine between 1959 and 1986. He also authored The Gunnplexer
Cookbook, published in 1981 by Ham Radio Publishing. After World War II
service as a fighter pilot, he was assigned to work on "Operation Ivy"
hydrogen bomb test in the Marshall Islands. He holds several patents
including one for a "battery-free remote radio transmitter," a precursor to
today's RF identification tags used in retail security and inventory
control. He also holds a patent for the first bacteria-powered radio
transmitter, an accomplishment featured by Life magazine in a 1961 article,
"Will Bugs Generate Our Future Power?" In 1962, Richardson's contribution
"First Biological Cell Application Powers Six-Meter Transmitter" appeared in
QST's "Technical Correspondence." The family invites memorial donations to
the Robert Merz Richardson Memorial, Chautauqua Foundation, PO Box 28,
Chautauqua, NY 14722.

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League: ARRL--the National Association For Amateur Radio, 225
Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Joel Harrison, W5ZN, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential and general news
of interest to active radio amateurs. Visit the ARRL Web site
<> for the latest Amateur Radio news and news updates.
The ARRL Web site <> also offers informative features
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Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to
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==>Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!):
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The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

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