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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 25, No. 47
December 1, 2006


* +FCC fixes error in "omnibus" Report and Order
* +Exam question pools brought into line with new rules
* +Belgian primary schoolers speak with ISS commander via ham radio
* +Early-morning explosion puts ARES, RACES on alert in Eastern Mass
* +First of two Lakshadweep (VU7) DXpeditions gets under way
* +Discovery set to launch to ISS with three hams aboard
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio: The ARRL 160-Meter Contest
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
    +Martin confirmed for second FCC term
     ARRL still seeking data on mobile emergency communications vehicles
    +W1AW 80-meter digital transmission frequency changing
     ARRL announces new electronic newsletter for clubs
     New Sacramento Valley Section Manager takes office
     ARRL extends birthday wishes to centenarian member
     Past West Virginia SM Olie Rinehart, WD8V, SK
     Radio Amateurs of Canada General Manager Debbie Norman, VA3RGM, SK
     Special Canadian prefixes to honor historic Fessenden transmissions

+Available on ARRL Audio News <>

==>Delivery problems: First see FAQ
<>, then e-mail
==>Editorial questions or comments only: Rick Lindquist, N1RL,


The FCC this week released an Erratum that corrects one error in the recent
Report and Order (R&O) in WT Docket 04-140 -- the so-called "omnibus"
Amateur Radio proceeding. As originally worded, §97.3(c)(2) inadvertently
limited J2D emissions to an occupied bandwidth of 500 Hz. J2D emissions are
data sent by modulating an SSB transmitter.

Had it been left to stand, the error would have rendered illegal below 30
MHz PACTOR III at full capability as well as Olivia and MT63 when operated
at bandwidths greater than 500 Hz bandwidth, 1200 baud packet, Q15X25 and
Clover 2000.

The FCC Erratum
<> revises
§97.3(c)(2) of the Amateur Service rules going into effect December 15 to

"Data. Telemetry, telecommand and computer communications emissions having
(i) designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol, 1 as the
second symbol, and D as the third symbol; (ii) emission J2D; and (iii)
emissions A1C, F1C, F2C, J2C, and J3C having an occupied bandwidth of 500 Hz
or less when transmitted on an amateur service frequency below 30 MHz. Only
a digital code of a type specifically authorized in this part may be

In its comments on the proceeding, the ARRL argued that a 500-Hz bandwidth
limitation in the definition of data emissions would have unintended
consequences because the limitation would also apply to Amateur Radio bands
where a higher bandwidth is allowed. In its R&O, the FCC said relaxing the
bandwidth limitation "would de facto eliminate the separation of narrow
bandwidth and wide bandwidth emissions," which it called an "reasonable
means to minimize interference on shared frequencies and bands."

The Commission said in the running text of the R&O that it would address the
League's concern by revising the Part 97 rules "to clarify that the 500 Hz
limitation applies only to the emission types we are adding to the
definition of data when transmitted on Amateur Service frequencies below 30
Unfortunately, the language of the intended revision that appeared in the
original version of the R&O inadvertently included J2D emissions among those
to which the 500-Hz bandwidth limitation would apply.

The FCC incorporated some unrelated editorial revisions in the version of
the R&O that appeared November 15 in the Federal Register
v/2006/pdf/E6-19189.pdf>. The "omnibus" rule changes -- including those
accounted for in the Federal Register and the Erratum -- take effect Friday,
December 15, at 12:01 AM EST (0501 UTC).


With numerous new FCC Part 97 rules soon going into effect, the National
Conference of Volunteer Examiner Coordinators' (NCVEC) Question Pool
Committee (QPC) has dropped two dozen questions from the three Amateur Radio
examination question pools. The deletions will bring ham radio license exams
offered starting December 15 into line with rule changes spelled out in the
recent FCC "omnibus" Report and Order (R&O) in WT Docket 04-140. ARRL VEC
Manager Maria Somma, AB1FM, says ARRL VEC-sponsored examination sessions
will go forward without interruption.

"ARRL VEC will not be replacing any of our exam booklets affected by the WT
04-140 rule changes," Somma said. "We will, instead, be using stickers to
substitute alternate questions. The stickers will contain valid questions to
place in the exam booklets to cover up the deleted questions." The stickers
will go out by December 15 to ARRL VEC volunteer examiner teams that have
been formally field stocked.

The QPC cut just one question from the Technician question pool, 13 from the
General pool and 10 from the Amateur Extra pool. Changes in rules governing
frequency privileges and external RF power amplifier standards accounted for
the lion's share of the questions cut from the General and Amateur Extra

The table below includes all questions eliminated from the current question
pools as a result of changes dictated by the "omnibus" R&O. In a letter
earlier this month to all ARRL VEC teams, Somma pointed out that even after
the deletions, "sufficient questions will remain in the applicable pools to
meet the mandated '10-times' rule, so no new questions are being added to
existing pools." The "10-times" rule requires question pools to include 10
times the number of questions on a given examination for that license class.


T2A02     Change to §97.113, Incidental music transmissions from manned


G1A02     Change to §97.301(d), General class frequency privileges
G1A03     Change to §97.301(d), General class frequency privileges
G1A06     Change to §97.301(d), General class frequency privileges
G1A10     Change to §97.301(d), General class frequency privileges
G1B05     Change to §97.113(e), Incidental music transmissions from manned
G1C01     Change to §97.313(c), Observing 200 W limit in Novice segments
G1D01     No mention of need to be a VE*
G1F02     Change to §97.315(b)(1), External RF power amplifier standards
G1F03     Change to §97.317(a)(3), Power amplifier gain/drive requirements
G1F04     Change to §97.317(b), External RF power amplifier standards
G1F10     Change to §97.317(b), External RF power amplifier standards
G1F11     Change to §97.317(b)(2), Power amplifier gain/drive requirements
G2F02     Change in Amateur Extra class phone band on 75 meters


E1A01     Change to §97.301(b), Extra class frequency privileges
E1A02     Change to §97.301(b), Extra class frequency privileges
E1E05     Change to §97.207(d), Space station communications
E1E08     Change to §97.207(g)(1), Space station communications
E1F04     Removed to maintain consistency with VEC regulations*
E1F20     Change to §97.519(b), 10-day rule removed
E1F26     Change to §97.505, Permanent code credit even if CSCE expired
E1F27     Change to §97.505, Permanent code credit even if CSCE expired
E1F28     Change to §97.505, Permanent code credit even if CSCE expired
E1G02     Change to §97.317(a), Standards for RF power amplifiers

Somma says that while questions G1D01 and E1F04 remain largely correct,
they're being removed at this time because they do not meet current
standards for the degree of completeness or accuracy the QPC desires of exam


International Space Station Expedition 14 crew commander Michael
Lopez-Alegria, KE5GTK, told Belgian schoolchildren in November that he's
been enjoying a busy time in space now that he's gotten used to the routine
aboard the ISS. Via NA1SS Lopez-Alegria spoke November 10 to students at
Henri D'Haese Primary School in Gentbrugge. The Amateur Radio on the
International Space Station (ARISS) program arranged the contact. One
youngster wanted to know what kinds of activities the ISS crew was engaged

"We do all kinds of things, from scientific experiments to building the
International Space Station to conducting maintenance," Lopez-Alegria
responded, "and it's all very different and every day seems like a new and
exciting day to us up here."

Lopez-Alegria, who arrived at the ISS this fall, is sharing space aboard the
space outpost with Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, RZ3FT, and European
Space Agency astronaut Thomas Reiter, DF4TR, who returns home soon.

Replying to another question, Lopez-Alegria told the youngsters that a
spacewalk -- or EVA (extra-vehicular activity) in NASA-speak -- isn't really
a "walk" at all.

"As it turns out, we don't really walk on an EVA. We use our arms, so, it's
kind of like doing a handstand the whole time. We use our arms to hold onto
handrails, and that's how we get from one place to another," he explained.
"So, calling it a 'spacewalk' isn't really correct, but I don't know what
they'd call it. A 'space handstand' maybe?"

With Tyurin, Lopez-Alegria carried out the first "spacewalk" of Expedition
14 on November 22 -- his sixth. Tyurin began that event by swatting a
three-gram golf ball into space and a short-lived Earth orbit, a feat widely
reported by the news media. Lopez-Alegria put the tee on a ladder outside
the Pirs docking compartment, then helped to secure Tyurin's feet as he
addressed the ball for the one-handed shot. A Canadian golf company
sponsored the golf outing through a contract with the Russian Federal Space

In other remarks November 10, Lopez-Alegria explained that the ISS crew
cannot "see" the hole in the ozone layer, mainly because ozone is invisible
to the naked eye and the ozone hole exists in Earth's polar regions, over
which the ISS does not fly. He said he's missing his family during his time
in space, but noted later that he'll miss the view of Earth and being able
to float in microgravity once he's back home. "I'd love to stay a bit
longer," he said.

Asked if going into space was a dream come true, Lopez-Alegria said it was
better than what he'd hoped for. "So, I would say that, yes, my dream is
coming true every day."

The Earth station for the contact was W5RRR at Johnson Space Center in
Houston, Texas. Verizon Conferencing provided a two-way teleconference link
between the space station and the students in Belgium. ARISS Europe Chairman
Gaston Bertels, ON4WF, served on site as the ARISS mentor for the contact.
He spoke with the students about ARISS and the space program before the
event, which also attracted news reporters from TV, radio and print media.

ARISS <> is an international educational outreach
with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA.


Eastern Massachusetts ARES and RACES teams went on alert November 22 after
an early-morning explosion destroyed a paint and ink plant in Danvers,
located on Massachusetts' North Shore some 15 miles north of Boston. The
blast, felt as far away as Southern Maine, destroyed more than a dozen
nearby homes and damaged upward of 100 others. Minutes after the 2:45 AM
explosion at the building occupied by CAI Inc and Arnel Company, North Shore
ARES members initiated an informal net on a Danvers repeater while
monitoring the situation. The blast awakened North Shore ARES Emergency
Coordinator Jim Palmer, KB1KQW, who lives about a mile from the plant site.

"As soon as I heard the explosion, I followed our well-established ARES
protocols by getting on my local SKYWARN/ARES frequency and starting an
informal net," Palmer said. "I also monitored my scanner to hear information
directly from the incident area."

Palmer also notified North Shore ARES District Emergency Coordinator Eric
Horwitz, KA1NCF, and Eastern Massachusetts ARES Section Emergency
Coordinator Rob Macedo, KD1CY.

Macedo said, "It is very important to maintain a high state of readiness and
to react and start a net, but at the same time, we do not self-deploy to any
serious incident."

North Shore ARES Assistant Emergency Coordinator for Operations Gordon
Gravelese, KX1KTY, assisted with net control duties during the informal ARES
net. Also checking in was Region One RACES Radio Officer Terry Stader,
KA8SCP. He informed Palmer that at that point there had been no calls for
RACES assistance.

Macedo, meanwhile, got in touch with Massachusetts Bay Red Cross, which
opened a shelter at Danvers High School to accommodate some 100 to 150
displaced residents. He said Red Cross had necessary communication with the
shelter, but he noted that radio amateurs were ready to provide
communication support for the Red Cross or other agencies.

"We continued the informal net until 6 PM and secured," Macedo told ARRL
this week. "No deployments were required, but we were ready to deploy if
needed. We had over 40 check-ins to the informal net and between 6 and 12
amateurs ready for deployment."

Authorities have yet to determine the cause of the explosion but have ruled
out criminal activity. An Environmental Protection Agency team will begin
cleaning up the chemical-laden debris.


The first of two planned DXpeditions to rare Lakshadweep Islands (VU7) now
is on the air. A team sponsored by the Amateur Radio Society of India (ARSI)
-- the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) member-society for India --
began operating as VU7LD <> from Kavaratti Island
December 1 at around 1830 UTC, The Daily DX <>
reported this week. Lakshadweep Islands is the second most-wanted DXCC
entity. When identifying, operators have been asked to append their own call
signs following VU7LD (eg, VU7LD/VU2PAI), The Daily DX says. Also, be
prepared to wait your turn for a QSO.

"As with any major DXpedition to a rare location, such as the Lakshadweep
Islands, the pileups are going to be extremely large," advises The Daily DX
(and QST "How's DX?") Editor Bernie McClenny, W3UR. "Certain areas of the
world will have a more difficult time than other areas. When the operator
asks for a certain area please respect their plea."

According to McClenny, the Americas could be among the "more difficult"
areas. The VU7LD Web site soon will have a propagation forecast page
<>, he reports in The Daily DX.

VU7LD plans to operate from three or four locations on the island, with up
to six stations in all. This all-Indian DXpedition will be on the air
through December. QSL via W3HNK.

Meanwhile, a second Lakshadweep foray has returned to its original plans to
commence in mid-January instead of December, thus avoiding the potential for
on-air conflict. The second VU7 DXpedition <>, under the
auspices of the National Institute for Amateur Radio (NIAR), will kick off
with a three-day hamfest January 15, and the DXpedition will continue for
approximately 10 days. The NIAR DXpedition plans to operate as VU7RG, in
honor of the late Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, VU2RG.

NIAR says "well-known, experienced operators" staffing three operating sites
will "work closely together to avoid multiple stations on the air using
overlapping frequencies."

Concerns arose within the DX community in October after NIAR had rescheduled
its event from January to December, and it appeared the two DXpeditions
would have multiple stations on the air at the same time during early


NASA has set Thursday, December 7, as the launch date for the next space
shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Shuttle Discovery
will carry three radio amateurs, one of whom -- US astronaut Sunita
Williams, KD5PLB -- will join ISS Expedition 14 in progress. She'll replace
European Space Agency astronaut Thomas Reiter, DF4TR, whose duty tour has
spanned Expeditions 13 and 14 -- the first time that's happened in the
history of the ISS. Williams is said to be eager to do Amateur Radio on the
International Space Station (ARISS) <> school group
contacts from NA1SS.

Also aboard Discovery will be European Space Agency astronaut and mission
specialist Christer Fuglesang, KE5CGR/SA0AFS, Sweden's first astronaut, who
will be making his first journey into space. Plans are in place for
Fuglesang to carry out an ARISS school contact with students at
Thunmanskolan in Knivsta, Sweden. The contact would be the first ARISS
school QSO with Scandinavia.

On November 20, Fuglesang attended an Amateur Radio training session at
Johnson Space Center to prepare him for using the ARISS Phase 2 station for
his school contact.

Primary payloads on the 12-day mission are the P5 integrated truss segment,
SPACEHAB single logistics module and an integrated cargo carrier. Mission
specialist Nicholas Patrick, KD5PKY, also is on the seven-member STS-116
mission crew. This will mark the 20th shuttle flight to the ISS. -- NASA;


Solar Seer Tad "SPF-15" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports: The
Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) dipped south early on November 30 UTC,
letting in a blast of solar wind. The planetary K index November 30 UTC was
2, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 2 and 1, yielding a planetary A index of 28. Over the
Friday through Thursday reporting week, the average daily planetary A index
rose by 8.7 points to 12.3, while average daily sunspot numbers declined
more than 11 points.

The daily sunspot number was zero on three days recently, November 22, 23
and 24. Since that time the number has been rising, 12, 12, 30, 34, 33 and
59 from November 25-30. Two prominent and growing sunspots are in view --
926 and 927. The sunspot minimum is predicted to be three to four months

Average daily solar flux for the past week was 80.6. That number should rise
to 85 for December 1-5, 90 for December 6-7, and 95 for December 8-13.
Sunspot numbers also should go up. During this weekend the planetary A index
is expected to quiet down, with a value of 15 for December 1, and 5 for
December 2-5. The next period of geomagnetic disturbance is expected around
December 7, with a planetary A index of 25, just prior to the ARRL 10 Meter

Geophysical Institute Prague predicts quiet to unsettled conditions December
1, quiet conditions December 2-5, unsettled December 6, and active
geomagnetic conditions on December 7.

Sunspot numbers for November 23 through 29 were 0, 0, 12, 12, 30, 34 and 33,
with a mean of 17.3. The 10.7 cm flux was 76.8, 77.4, 78.6, 78.2, 82.4,
85.5, and 85, with a mean of 80.6. Estimated planetary A indices were 18,
21, 15, 15, 6, 5 and 6, with a mean of 12.3. Estimated mid-latitude A
indices were 8, 10, 10, 9, 7, 4 and 6, with a mean of 7.7.

For more radio propagation information, see the ARRL Technical Information
Service at For a detailed
explanation of the numbers used in this report, see An archive of past propagation
bulletins is at



* This weekend on the radio: The ARRL 160-Meter Contest, the EU-PSK QRP
Contest, the TARA RTTY Melee, the Wake-Up! QRP Sprint, and the TOPS Activity
Contest are the weekend of December 2-3. The Antique Wireless Association's
Bruce Kelley Memorial 1929 QSO Party will take place the weekends of
December 2-3 and 9-10. The ARS Spartan Sprint is December 5. The ARRL
10-Meter Contest is the weekend of December 9-10. The North America
High-Speed Meteor Scatter Winter Rally takes place December 10-18. The NAQCC
Straight Key/Bug Sprint is December 13. See the ARRL Contest Branch page
<> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration remains open through Sunday, December 24, for these ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education program (CCE) online courses starting
Monday, January 1, 2007: Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level 1
(EC-001), Radio Frequency Interference (EC-006), Antenna Design and
Construction (EC-009), Amateur Radio License Course (EC-010), Analog
Electronics (EC-012) and Digital Electronics (EC-013). These courses also
will open for registration Friday, December 22, for classes beginning
Sunday, February 4, 2007. To learn more, visit the CCE Course Listing page
<> or contact the CCE Department

* Martin confirmed for second FCC term: The US Senate on November 16
confirmed Kevin J. Martin to serve as FCC chairman for another term, which
expires in 2011. He's one of three Republican members on the five-member
commission. "I will continue to work to provide a regulatory environment
that promotes competition and drives investment and innovation while
protecting consumers and promoting public safety," Martin said in a
statement. He's has been on the FCC since 2001. In 2005, President George W.
Bush appointed him as chairman to succeed Michael Powell and nominated
Martin for a second term last April. Like his predecessor, Martin has been
among the most enthusiastic BPL proponents.

* ARRL still seeking data on mobile emergency communications vehicles: The
League's National Emergency Response Planning Committee (NERPC) continues to
invite responses from clubs or groups having access to an emergency
communications vehicle (ECV). An initial appeal was included recently in The
ARES E-Letter <>. If your group has
an ECV and has not yet participated in the survey, please have someone take
a few minutes and be a part of this effort. The Committee's response to the
ARRL Board is due in January. A number of responses have been received to
date, but the Committee wants to collect as much information as possible to
develop its report. As of November 29, clubs and groups had entered 29 ECVs
into the survey database. Most ECVs are owned by individuals or local
governments, 14 have portable repeaters onboard and another 25 have their
own power generators. This information will help determine what assets are
available and help in planning for future disasters. To participate, visit
the Emergency Communications Vehicle Survey Web site
<>. Thank you for assisting in this project!

* W1AW 80-meter digital transmission frequency changing: Effective December
15, in response to rule changes resulting from the "omnibus" Report & Order
(R&O) in WT Docket 04-140, ARRL Maxim Memorial Station W1AW will change its
80-meter digital transmission frequency to 3597.5 kHz. The expansion of the
75-meter phone band to 3600 kHz makes the change necessary. W1AW will begin
using the new frequency starting with the regularly scheduled 2300 UTC
digital bulletin on Friday, December 15. A possible change in the W1AW
80-meter CW frequency is under consideration.

* ARRL announces new electronic newsletter for clubs: A new monthly
newsletter, ARRL Club News, will soon be available via e-mail at no charge
to ARRL members. Designed to help invigorate Amateur Radio clubs and their
activities, each issue will contain information and highlights for and about
ARRL-affiliated clubs. "Although the first issues will be in text format, we
expect to have the ARRL Club News available in HTML format so we can share
photos and other exciting material from over 2000 ARRL-affiliated clubs,"
says ARRL Affiliated Club/Mentor Program Coordinator Norm Fusaro, W3IZ. The
first issue of ARRL Club News will be out Wednesday, December 6. To
subscribe, unsubscribe or change your address for e-mail delivery, ARRL
members must register on the Members Only Web Site
<>. During registration, members will have the
opportunity to sign up for e-mail delivery of the ARRL Club News, The ARRL
Letter, W1AW bulletins and other material. ARRL members already registered
and logged into the Web site may subscribe to ARRL Club News by visiting the
Member Data Page <>, scrolling down to "Which of
the following would you like to receive automatically via email from ARRL?"
and checking the box for ARRL Club News (monthly club news).

* New Sacramento Valley Section Manager takes office: Casey McPartland,
W7IB, of Meadow Vista, California, is the new ARRL Sacramento Valley Section
Manager. He took the reins December 1 from outgoing veteran SM Jettie Hill,
W6RFF, who is stepping down. McPartland has served as a Sacramento Valley
Assistant SM and as an Official Emergency Station. Hill was Santa Clara
Valley Section Communications Manager (SCM) from 1978 until 1982, and he was
Sacramento Valley SM from 1989 until 2000 and again since 2002. He also was
the ARRL Pacific Division Vice Director from January 1982 through December
1983. Contact McPartland via e-mail <>;.

* ARRL extends birthday wishes to centenarian member: ARRL member Ralph
Hasslinger, W2CVF, of Glen Rock, New Jersey, turned 100 years old on
November 24. Hasslinger is said to be the last living charter member of the
Quarter Century Wireless Association (QCWA) <>. Noting
the "rare privilege" of congratulating a League member on becoming a
centenarian, ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, extended birthday wishes to
Hasslinger on behalf of the League. "The fact that you are still active on
the air practically puts you in a class by yourself," Sumner wrote. "I know
you have seen many changes since you were first licensed in 1922. One thing
that has not changed is the unique camaraderie among radio amateurs of
different generations. I hope we will continue to enjoy your fellowship for
many years to come."

* Past West Virginia SM Olie Rinehart, WD8V, SK: Former West Virginia
Section Manager Oliver N. "Olie" Rinehart, WD8V, of S Charleston died
November 25. He was 76. First licensed in 1983, Rinehart -- a retiree from
the West Virginia Department of Highways -- served as West Virginia SM from
1994 until 2001. An ARRL member, he remained active in the ARRL Field
Organization and, until his death, held appointments as Official Relay
Station, Official Emergency Station, Official Observer, and Assistant
Section Manager. In addition, he served as a Roanoke Division Assistant
Director and was active in the National Traffic System. He was a member of
the A-1 Operator Club. Survivors include his wife L. Ann Rinehart, KA8ZGY,
who became West Virginia SM in 2005, and sons, Jeff, KB8VDK, Greg, N8XAQ,
and Steve. There will be no memorial service. The family invites memorial
contributions to the West Virginia State Amateur Radio Council, care of
Patrick Shea, N8MIN.

* Radio Amateurs of Canada General Manager Debbie Norman, VA3RGM, SK: Radio
Amateurs of Canada (RAC) General Manager Deborah "Debbie" Norman, VA3RGM, of
Orleans, Ontario, died November 27 following a long illness. Norman had
served as RAC's General Manager since the organization's inception 13 years
ago and was the its sole staff member. Announcement of her death came from
RAC President Earle Smith, VE6NM. "So many of us have known Debbie through
many years of working with her at CARF, through the merger with CRRL and
many years with Radio Amateurs of Canada," he said. "In so many ways she was
the voice of RAC, the cheerful personality on the other end of the phone
line." In 2004, the RAC Board recognized Norman's service with a plaque
thanking her for "her loyalty and perseverance as the corporation's sole
permanent and full time employee." A service was held December 1.

* Special Canadian prefixes to honor historic Fessenden transmissions: At
the request of Radio Amateurs of Canada (RAC), Industry Canada has
authorized radio amateurs in Canada to identify with special prefixes to
mark the 100th anniversary of Reginald Fessenden's radio accomplishments.
Canadian Amateur Radio operators may use the commemorative prefixes from
December 1, 2006, through January 31, 2007. In call sign districts 1 through
9, those with VE call signs may identify using CG, while those with VA call
signs may identify using CF, plus the assigned call sign district and
suffix. Holders of VY call signs may identify using CI, while those with VO
call signs may use CH, plus their assigned call sign district and suffix. A
Quebec native, Fessenden is probably best known for his Christmas Eve 1906
broadcast that included his violin rendition of "O Holy Night" and a Bible
reading. He transmitted a second short program on New Year's Eve 1906.


The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League: ARRL--the National Association For Amateur Radio, 225
Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Joel Harrison, W5ZN, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential and general news
of interest to active radio amateurs. Visit the ARRL Web site
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The ARRL Web site <> also offers informative features
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Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
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The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

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1. From the Inbox view, select the Tools menu and the Options selection.

2. Click the Read tab

3. Check the Read All Messages In Plain Text box.  When you open the e-mail, it will be in plain text without images. Other e-mail programs may be able to make a Mail Rule for e-mail received from the address so that the plain-text-only display is selected automatically.

Outlook 2007

Use the same procedure as for Outlook Express, although the global option is under "Tools/Trust Center/E-mail Security".


Use the menu item "View/Message Body As/Plain Text" or "View/Message Source" options.

OS X Mail (Mac)

Use the "View/Message/Plain Text Alternative" menu item.


Use the "Message text garbled?" link in the drop-down menu at the upper right of the displayed message block. pine, alpine Set "prefer-plain-text" in your ~/.pinerc configuration file: feature-list=..., prefer-plain-text, ...


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