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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 26, No. 03
January 19, 2007


* +Morse code requirement poised to disappear February 23
* +President Bush praises Amateur Radio
* +Bill in US House calls for BPL study, report
* +ISS astronaut Suni Williams, KD5PLB, on a QSO roll
* +Ham radio volunteers respond following icy weather
* +Alexanderson alternator transmission attracts reports
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio: The ARRL January VHF Sweepstakes!
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
     Amateur Radio volunteers respond to tsunami alert
    +Scarborough Reef still heads Top 10 most-wanted DXCC entities list
     Visalia International DX Convention 2007 set for April
     Tickets now on sale for Dayton Contest Dinner 2007
     New Argentine Amateur Radio satellite now in orbit
    +FCal satellite gets OSCAR number

+Available on ARRL Audio News <>

==>Delivery problems: First see FAQ
<>, then e-mail
==>Editorial questions or comments only: Rick Lindquist, N1RL,


The ARRL has learned that the FCC's Report and Order (R&O) in the "Morse
code proceeding," WT Docket 05-235
<>, is
scheduled to appear in the Federal Register Wednesday, January 24. Assuming
that occurs, the new Part 97 rules deleting any Morse code examination
requirement for Amateur Radio license applicants would go into effect
Friday, February 23, 2007. The League cautions that this date is
*tentative*, pending official confirmation and publication.

"This change eliminates an unnecessary regulatory burden that may discourage
current Amateur Radio operators from advancing their skills and
participating more fully in the benefits of Amateur Radio," the FCC remarked
in the Morse code R&O.

Publication of the R&O in the Federal Register starts a 30-day countdown for
the new rules to go on the books. Rules and regulations that appear in the
Federal Register constitute their official version.

Deletion of the Morse requirement is a landmark in Amateur Radio history.
Until 1991, when a code examination was dropped from the requirements to
obtain a Technician ticket, all prospective radio amateurs had to pass a
Morse test. Once the new rules are in place, Amateur Radio license
applicants no longer will have to demonstrate Morse code proficiency at any
level to gain access to the HF bands.

On or after the effective date of the new rules, an applicant holding a
valid Certificate of Successful Completion of Examination (CSCE) for a
higher license class will be able to redeem it for an upgrade. For example,
a Technician licensee holding a valid CSCE for Element 3 (General) could
apply at a VEC exam session, pay the application fee -- which most VECs
charge -- and receive an instant upgrade. A CSCE is good only for 365 days
from the date of issuance. Candidates for General or Amateur Extra between
now and the effective date of the new rules still must have Element 1 (5 WPM
Morse code) credit to obtain new privileges, however.

The new rules also mean that all Technician licensees, whether or not
they've passed a Morse code examination, will gain HF privileges identical
to those of current Novice and Tech Plus (or Technician with Element 1
credit) licensees without having to apply for an upgrade. Novices and
Technicians with Element 1 credit have CW privileges on 80, 40, 15 meters
and CW, RTTY, data and SSB privileges on 10 meters. Technician licensees who
have not passed a Morse code test should *not* operate on any HF bands until
the Morse requirement is officially deleted.

The FCC R&O includes an Order on Reconsideration in WT Docket 04-140 -- the
so-called "omnibus" proceeding. It will modify the Amateur Service rules in
response to ARRL's request to accommodate automatically controlled
narrowband digital stations on 80 meters in the wake of other rule changes
that were effective last December 15. The Commission designated 3585 to 3600
kHz for such operations, although that segment will remain available for CW,
RTTY and data.

The ARRL has posted all relevant information on these important Part 97 rule
revisions on its "FCC's Morse Code Report and Order WT Docket 05-235" Web
page <>.


President George W. Bush has written the ARRL to recognize the just-ended
Hello Amateur Radio public relations campaign and to extend "greetings to
all those celebrating 100 years of voices over the airwaves." The president
said the centennial of Reginald Fessenden's landmark Christmas Eve 1906
voice broadcast "opened the door for technological advances" that improved
the lives of people around the world.

"I appreciate all who work in radio, and I am grateful to the Amateur Radio
operators who provide emergency communications that help make our country
safer and more secure," President Bush wrote. "Your good work strengthens
our society and represents the American spirit."

ARRL Media and Public Relations Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP, conceived and
developed the Hello campaign. He says that while that initiative is formally
over, ARRL public information coordinators and officers will take advantage
in the new year of the momentum it generated.

"As we begin launching the new Emergency Communications campaign, the
friendships and goodwill developed in Hello will aid in future promotions of
Amateur Radio," Pitts commented. "For 100 years, radio in its many forms has
saved lives and aided in crises. We have a great legacy and a bright

The grand finale of the Hello campaign December 29-30 involved special event
operations from W1AW (see The ARRL Letter, Vol 26, No 02, Jan 12, 2007), W1F
at Brant Rock, Massachusetts (see below), and GB1FVT in Scotland.

The theme of the ARRL's 2007 public relations initiative is "Ham Radio . . .
Getting the Message Through for your Family and Community." It will focus on
Amateur Radio's capability to provide reliable emergency communication when
traditional systems fail or become overloaded.


US Rep Mike Ross, WD5DVR (D-AR), has introduced a bill in the 110th Congress
calling on the FCC to study the interference potential of broadband over
power line (BPL) technology and report its findings back to Congress. One of
two radio amateurs in the House, Ross submitted the "Emergency Amateur Radio
Interference Protection Act of 2007" (HR 462) on January 12. The bill's
official text became available this week. ARRL President Joel Harrison,
W5ZN, says the League shares Ross's concern about interference to emergency
communication networks.

"We wholly support his effort to ensure that public safety remains a
priority over flawed political agendas regarding communication technology,"
Harrison commented.

The bill calls for the FCC to conduct "a comprehensive BPL service study
leading to improved rules to prevent interference." If the measure is
adopted by both houses of Congress and signed by the president, the FCC
would have to undertake a study of BPL's interference potential within 90
days of enactment and report to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce
and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

In 2005, Ross introduced a non-binding House resolution, HRes 230, in the
109th Congress that would have had the FCC conduct "a full and complete
analysis" of radio interference from BPL with an eye toward revising the FCC
rules that govern BPL to minimize the potential of harmful interference. It
was unsuccessful.

Last year, the US House passed a telecommunications bill containing language
that Ross proposed requiring the FCC to study the interference potential of
BPL systems. The study requirement did not make its way into the final
version of the bill, however.

HR 462 would require the Commission to address several technical facets,
including variations in BPL emission field strength with distance from power
lines and a technical justification for using a particular distance
extrapolation factor when making measurements.

The FCC also would have to investigate the degree of notching necessary "to
protect the reliability of mobile radio communications," and provide a
technical justification for permitted BPL radiated emission levels relative
to ambient noise levels. Finally, the study would have to outline options
for new or improved BPL rules aimed at preventing harmful interference to
public safety and other radio communication systems.

Ross's bill zeroes in on some of the same issues the ARRL cited last October
when it asked the US Court of Appeals -- DC Circuit to review certain
aspects of the Part 15 BPL rules. The ARRL specifically has taken issue with
ß15.611(c)(1)(iii), which sets a lower standard of protection for licensed
mobile stations in any radio service, including public safety, that may
receive BPL interference.

The League's lawsuit also faults the FCC's decision not to adjust the 40 dB
per decade "extrapolation factor" applied to BPL emission measurements taken
at distances from power lines other than those specified in Part 15. The
ARRL contends that BPL measurements made according to existing BPL rules
underestimate actual field strengths and that an extrapolation factor closer
to 20 dB per decade would be more appropriate.

The League's Petition for Review asserts that the BPL rules "exceed the
Commission's jurisdiction and authority; are contrary to the Communications
Act of 1934; and are arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion and
otherwise not in accordance with law."

The Association of Maximum Service Television and the National Association
of Broadcasters are supporting the ARRL lawsuit as interveners.

HR 462 has been referred to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce. The
text of the bill is available on the Library of Congress' Thomas Web site


If she keeps up her current pace, ISS Expedition 14 Flight Engineer Suni
Williams, KD5PLB, could set a new record in the number of Amateur Radio on
the International Space Station (ARISS) school contacts. Since arriving on
the space station in late December aboard the shuttle Discovery, Williams
has logged five ARISS ham radio contacts with schools, starting the first
week in January. Recently she told youngsters at Dilworth Elementary School
in San Jose, California, that viewing the entire planet Earth from space is
the most impressive thing she's seen to date. She also confirmed that the
lack of gravity aboard the ISS does affect the human body.

"Your muscles are used to working on the ground," she said. "In space they
have to relearn that gravity is not helping them -- for example, going to
the bathroom."

Williams also advised any prospective astronauts among the kindergarten
through grade five pupils to pick a career they enjoy and stay in good
health. ARISS arranged the direct VHF contact January 8 between AA6W at the
school and NA1SS in space.

ISS Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur, KC5ACR, now holds the record for
the most ARISS school contacts in a single mission -- 37. The Dilworth
contact was the second successful school QSO on the same day for Williams,
who's indicated she'd like to speak via ham radio with as many schools as
possible during her six months in space.

On January 16, Williams chatted with seventh graders from two schools in
Streator, Illinois: St Anthony's School and Northlawn Junior High School.
Members of the ARRL-affiliated Starved Rock Radio Club, including club
president Steven Michalski Jr, KB9UPS -- who loaned his call sign for the
event -- set up the Earth station at the school for the direct VHF contact
arranged by ARISS.

Williams answered 20 of the students' questions during the approximately
10-minute pass. "I think the most important and interesting thing that I've
learned is looking back at our Earth and seeing that there really are no
borders between any of the countries on the land masses down there," she
told the Illinois students. "We're all just human beings working together."

Responding to other questions, Williams explained that the challenges of
doing a spacewalk include confronting the "unfriendly environment" of space
and having to work while wearing a pressurized spacesuit. On the other hand,
"even moving big, heavy objects around in space is no problem, because they
really don't weigh anything."

ARISS <> is an international educational outreach
with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA.


Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) and other ham radio volunteers in
Oklahoma continue to assist after an ice storm blanketed the state January
12 before moving into the Eastern US. Section leadership is asking radio
amateurs to continue monitoring local VHF and UHF repeaters and the ARES
Oklahoma HF Net (7260 kHz days; 3900 kHz evenings) for up-to-date
information. ARRL Oklahoma Section Emergency Coordinator Kevin Atnip,
KD5WUP, says ARES teams are on duty in several counties, but volunteers are
still needed.

"At this time we have people helping out in McAlester and in Eufaula," he
said this week. One volunteer in McAlester is relieving some of the local
radio amateurs who have been on duty from day one. The Eufaula Emergency
Operations Center (EOC), in McIntosh County, is seeking relief operators.

In Pontotoc and Coal counties, Atnip said, Amateur Radio volunteers are
going door to door to check on older residents. In Mayes County, a loss of
power forced temporary relocation of the EOC, and emergency managers were
seeking additional Amateur Radio support. Volunteers also were needed to
provide a communication link for water distribution centers at opposite ends
of Mayes County. The Ada Amateur Radio Club was reported working with
retailer Drug Warehouse to deliver medications to those unable to retrieve

Oklahoma is preparing for another round of winter weather this weekend.
Atnip has urged volunteers to exercise caution when deploying. "If anyone is
called out, please be careful and watch out for each other," he said. "Do
not put yourself or the team into a dangerous position."

The Oklahoma State EOC remained activated at week's end. Thousands of
households still had no electricity due to downed power lines -- some
weighed down by inches of ice or felled by broken tree limbs -- and hundreds
of residents were taking refuge in Red Cross shelters.

The weather system that wreaked havoc in Oklahoma and parts of the Midwest
swept through sections of Upstate New York and into New England, bringing
ice and not-entirely-unwelcome snow. SKYWARN teams activated as the ice and
snow hit southern New Hampshire and northern Massachusetts, damaging trees
and power lines and causing widespread power outages. The activation lasted
about 11 hours with icing averaging about one-half inch across the area,
says Rob Macedo, KD1CY, the ARES SKYWARN Coordinator for the National
Weather Service Office in Taunton, Massachusetts.

Macedo said that once it became clear that an ice storm was likely, Amateur
Radio SKYWARN spotter reports played a critical role in upgrading NWS
"advisories" to "warnings." Amateur Radio volunteers also provided damage
reports and information on how residents of the region were being affected,
he added.

In New Hampshire, downed trees and utility lines were reported across
Cheshire, Hillsborough and Rockingham counties. In Massachusetts, northern
Franklin, northern Worcester, northern Middlesex and western Essex counties
were hardest hit.

SKYWARN was active on as many as six repeaters throughout the day, Macedo
reports, and Amateur Radio volunteers staffing the NWS Taunton office
collected reports to help meteorologists disseminating weather information
to the general public. Hams used local repeaters as well as Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) resources to obtain or relay information from the
affected area, Macedo said.

Hillsborough County New Hampshire ARES and SKYWARN Emergency Coordinator Jim
Blaine, WD4JZO, ran hourly nets January 15 before losing power and switching
to batteries. Other New Hampshire radio amateurs also lost power for several
hours but went to generators to stay on the air.

Word that some hams were using generators for emergency power prompted a
warning from New Hampshire ARES Section Emergency Coordinator Tom
Richardson, AB1CL. "Generators produce deadly carbon monoxide," he said. "It
seems that every storm brings about a few generator deaths, so move them
away from buildings."

In northern Massachusetts, many trees and wires were down and power outages
were widespread. Auto accidents abounded during the evening rush hour. Icing
even reached communities closer to the coast, along Massachusetts' North
Shore, where significant icing occurred.

The icy weather and sub-freezing temperatures stood in stark contrast to the
unseasonably warm weather New England had been experiencing. "I guess the
Indian summer portion of our winter has now ended," quipped Macedo.


In 1906, Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden transmitted a program of
voice and music -- in essence the world's first radio broadcast -- from
Brant Rock, Massachusetts. In 2006, Amateur Radio special event W100BO/W1F
<> helped to celebrate the 100th anniversary of
Fessenden's accomplishment as part of the ARRL "Hello" campaign finale
December 29-30. Among those on hand for the occasion was the grandson of
Fessenden's assistant Adam Stein Jr -- George A. Stein, NJ3H. Steve
Barreres, K2CX, headed the Peconic Amateur Radio Club (PARC) W100BO/W1F

"We operated a very busy group of stations from 160 through 6 meters,
conditions allowing," Barreres said, adding that the team logged more than
1000 contacts.

Barreres said he and the other Long Island radio amateurs thought the
Fessenden centennial would be a great opportunity to blend Amateur Radio
with wireless history. The Hello finale provided the ideal occasion.

The group set up at the same Brant Rock location Fessenden had used a
century earlier -- in the shadow of the original concrete base that
supported the station "BO" (Big Ocean) antenna. Among the operators was
George A. Stein, NJ3H, the grandson of Fessenden's assistant Adam Stein Jr.
Given the season, the group opted to rent a mobile office trailer to house
the station.

"One hundred years ago, Fessenden transmitted voice from Brant Rock,"
Barreres said. "One hundred year later, radio amateurs from in and around
New England gathered to celebrate our avocation as Amateur Radio enthusiasts
and tinkerers, while also spotlighting the accomplishments of those
experimenters of a century earlier. Having W1AW as the flagship station,
along with W1F and GB1FVT's operating in Scotland made the end of 2006
something special too."

To obtain a W100BO/W1F QSL, enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope with
your card to Special Event Station W1F, PO Box 121, Plainview, NY 11803.


A Christmas Eve CW transmission from the SAQ Alexanderson alternator site in
Grimeton, Sweden, drew a raft of reports, 166 in all, most from Europe.
SAQ's 200 kW signal on 17.2 kHz was barely readable in North America,
however. The holiday transmission from the historic site on Sweden's west
coast marked the 100th anniversary of Reginald Fessenden's landmark voice
broadcast from Brant Rock, Massachusetts, on Christmas Eve 1906.

"The conditions this time were not the best," Lars KŚlland, SM6NM, said of
the December 24, 2006, transmission. "It was much better in the last winter
transmission, 19th Feb 2006. The transmission was received in the USA, but
very weak."

Six listeners in the US were able to copy all or part of SAQ's transmission,
including Jay Rusgrove, W1VD, in Connecticut, who gave SAQ a 349 to 449
report. Alan Douglas on Cape Cod reported a weak signal, while Bill Ashlock
in Andover, Massachusetts, said he had "fairly good copy" of SAQ's
very-low-frequency signal. Far better reports showed up from various points
in Europe. Lubomir Bobalik, OK2BVG, reported that SAQ was 15 dB over S9 in
the Czech Republic.

Swedish-American engineer Ernst Alexanderson developed the radio transmitter
that bears his name while working for RCA. The device is essentially a large
high-frequency alternator (ie, an ac "generator") with a high-speed rotor
connected directly to an antenna system. A similar station once operated on
Long Island, New York. The circuit was used to transmit telegrams and
messages between Europe and the US. Such systems were in use through World
War II to provide international telecommunication.

The SAQ site houses the last working Alexanderson alternator and is home to
Amateur Radio station SK6SAQ.

KŚlland said SAQ would announce its next scheduled transmission. SAQ is a
member of the Swedish Amateur Association (SSA), and listeners may QSL via
the bureau.


Sol man Tad "I Saw the Sun" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports:
Average daily sunspot numbers for the week were down 16 points from the
previous week to 27.4. Geomagnetic conditions were unsettled on Monday
through Wednesday, January 15-17.

Don't look for any radical changes in activity over the near term, with the
next period of moderate geomagnetic activity set for January 30. Expect
geomagnetic conditions to become progressively quieter over the next few
days. Geophysical Institute Prague predicts unsettled conditions for today,
January 19, quiet to unsettled January 20 and 21, and quiet on January

Sunspot numbers for January 11 through 17 were 45, 33, 36, 27, 16, 18 and
17, with a mean of 27.4. The 10.7 cm flux was 83.9, 83.8, 81.4, 82.1, 82,
78.7, and 78.1, with a mean of 81.4. Estimated planetary A indices were 6,
3, 1, 2, 22, 13 and 26, with a mean of 10.4. Estimated mid-latitude A
indices were 4, 2, 0, 2, 14, 9 and 15, with a mean of 6.6.

For more information concerning radio propagation, visit the ARRL Technical
Information Service Propagation page



* This weekend on the radio: The ARRL January VHF Sweepstakes, the North
American QSO Party (SSB), the LZ Open Contest, the UK DX Contest (RTTY), the
Hungarian DX Contest and the Run for the Bacon QRP Contest are the weekend
of January 20-21. JUST AHEAD: The CQ 160-Meter Contest (CW), the REF Contest
(CW), the SARL Youth for Amateur Radio contest, the BARTG RTTY Sprint and
the UBA DX Contest (SSB) are the weekend of January 27-28. See the ARRL
Contest Branch page <> and the WA7BNM Contest
Calendar <> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration remains open through Tuesday, February 6, for these ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education (CCE) online courses beginning
Sunday, February 18: Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level 2
(EC-002), Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level 3 (EC-003R2), Antenna
Modeling (EC-004), HF Digital Communications (EC-005), VHF/UHF -- Life
Beyond the Repeater (EC-008), and Radio Frequency Propagation (EC-011).
These courses will also open for registration Sunday, February 4, for
classes beginning Friday, March 16. To learn more, visit the CCE Course
Listing page <> or contact the CCE
Department <>;.

* Amateur Radio volunteers respond to tsunami alert: On January 12, Amateur
Radio volunteers in Hawaii responded to a tsunami alert that resulted from a
magnitude 8.4 earthquake on Kuril Island. State RACES Coordinator and ARRL
State Civil Defense (SCD) Emergency Coordinator Ron Hashiro, AH6RH, reports
he received an alert from the SCD automatic notification system at 6:41 PM
and alerted key ham radio volunteers. The general amateur population on Oahu
was notified via the 146.88 MHz Diamond Head repeater. "Amateurs statewide
continued their preparations, tested equipment, activated nets and prepared
for further action," Hashiro told ARRL. "Fortunately, the alert was
cancelled at 9:33 PM after waves in Japan were recorded at less than one
meter. That released a number of the responding amateurs to fulfill their
assignments covering the Hawaiian Ultra Running Team 100-mile wilderness
marathon, which started at 6 o'clock the next morning."

* Scarborough Reef still heads Top 10 most-wanted DXCC entities list: The DX
Magazine, published by Carl Smith, N4AA, has released the results of its
2006 most-wanted DXCC entities survey, The Daily DX <>
reports. The newsletter notes that the survey list omitted Swains Island
(KH8/S), which joined the DXCC List last July 22 and may otherwise have been
number one. For 2006, Scarborough Reef (BS7) remains on top. The second
most-wanted entity is Lakshadweep Islands (VU7), where a second DXpedition
in as many months is now on the air with the call signs VU7RG and VU7MY.
North Korea (P5) still holds the number-three slot, followed in order by
Yemen (7O), Navassa (KP1), Glorioso (FR/G), Bouvet (3Y/B), Desecheo (KP5),
Marion Island (ZS8) and Heard Island (VK0/H). Displaced from the Top 10 in
2006 were Peter I (3Y/P) and Andaman Islands (VU4). The complete listing of
the Top 100 most-wanted DXCC entities eventually will appear on the DX
Publishing Web site <>.

* Visalia International DX Convention 2007 set for April: The 2007
International DX Convention takes place Friday, Saturday and Sunday, April
27-29, at the Holiday Inn Hotel and Conference Center in Visalia,
California. The Northern California DX Club (NCDXC) sponsors this
ARRL-sanctioned convention, which annually draws visitors from around the
world. The 2007 convention theme is "Elmering New DXers is Job Number One!"
Other program offerings will include DX, Top Band and contest forums as well
as technical talks. The banquet is Saturday. Complete information and
registration forms are available on the convention Web page

* Tickets now on sale for Dayton Contest Dinner 2007: The North Coast
Contesters have announced that tickets to the 2007 Dayton Contest Dinner --
held in conjunction with Dayton Hamvention -- are now on sale exclusively
via the Web <>. The 15th annual
Dayton Contest Dinner takes place Saturday, May 19, 6:30 PM (social hour at
5:30 PM) in the Van Cleve Ballroom of the Crowne Plaza Hotel, Fifth and
Jefferson streets, in downtown Dayton (next to the Convention Center).
Individual tickets are $34 (random seating); tickets for a reserved table of
eight are $265. Master of ceremonies will be CQ Magazine Contest Editor John
Dorr, K1AR, and the keynote speaker will be Barry Merrill, W5GN. The 2007 CQ
Contest Hall of Fame inductees will be announced at the dinner. Contest
operators from around the world attend this event. If you enjoy radio
contesting, don't miss it. Seating is limited, and no tickets will be
available at the door! Additional details, including the menu, are on the
North Coast Contesters Dayton Contest Dinner Web page

* New Argentine Amateur Radio satellite now in orbit: AMSAT-LU (Argentina)
has announced that Pehuensat-1, the second Argentine Amateur Radio
satellite, now is in a 635 to 640 km sun-synchronous polar orbit (97.92
degree inclination). It was launched January 10 from India. Once activated
Pehuensat-1 will transmit voice messages in three languages -- English,
Hindi and Spanish -- on 145.825 MHz followed by AX.25 1200 bps packet. Named
after the native Patagonian Pehuen tree, Pehuensat-1 was developed by the
Argentina School of Engineering at the National University of Comahue, the
Argentina Association for Technology and Space and AMSAT-LU. More
information is on the AMSAT-LU Web site <>. To
determine the next pass at your location, click on the small revolving globe
off of the coast of Argentina, select your location from the map, and then
select PEHUENSAT-1. Reception reports are welcome

* FCal satellite gets OSCAR number: AMSAT-NA OSCAR Coordinator Bill Tynan,
W3XO, has announced that the recently deployed FCal Amateur Radio satellite
now has an OSCAR number. Built at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). FCal
(Fence Calibration Satellite) contains an Amateur Radio CubeSat for
communications and telemetry. The spacecraft has been designated
NRL-OSCAR-62 or NO-62. "I wish to congratulate you and your entire NRL
Amateur Radio Club team for the successful construction, testing and
orbiting of this spacecraft," Tynan said. FCal's downlink frequency is
437.385 MHz (AX.25 AFSK 1200 bps packet). It identifies as KD4HBO.

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League: ARRL--the National Association For Amateur Radio, 225
Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Joel Harrison, W5ZN, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential and general news
of interest to active radio amateurs. Visit the ARRL Web site
<> for the latest Amateur Radio news and news updates.
The ARRL Web site <> also offers informative features
and columns. ARRL Audio News <> is a
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Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or
in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to
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==>Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!):
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The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

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