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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 28, No. 38
September 24, 2009


* + Preparations Underway for WRC-12 
* + Changes in Store for The ARRL Letter 
*   ARRL: A Proud History of Defending Amateurs' Rights 
* + Call for Nominations: The ARRL's Bill Leonard, W2SKE Professional
Media Award 
* + Newly Elected Section Managers Converge on Newington 
* + ARRL Membership Newsletters, Bulletins and Notifications 
*  Solar Update 
      This Week on the Radio 
      ARRL Continuing Education Course Registration 
    + ARRL to Welcome USTTI Students 
    + More CubeSats in Orbit 

+Available on ARRL Audio News <> 

==>Delivery problems: First see FAQ
<>, then e-mail
==>Editorial questions or comments only: S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA


Approximately 200 participants came together in an ITU preliminary
meeting that ended September 16 in Geneva, Switzerland to help African
countries prepare for the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference
%83%C2%A2%C3%82%C5%92%C3%82%C2%A9=en>. The six regional
telecommunications organizations -- APT (Asia-Pacific), ASMG (Arab
States), ATU (Africa), CEPT (Europe), CITEL (the Americas) and RCC
(independent states of the former Soviet Union) -- were represented at
the meeting. This meeting was part of a series of ongoing international
and regional preparatory meetings to allow government and industry to
address the far-reaching and complex agenda of the WRC-12. ARRL
Technical Relations Specialist Jonathan Siverling, WB3ERA, and IARU
Region 1 Vice President Tafa Diop, 6W1KI, were among the participants.

WRC-12, which will be held in Geneva from January 23-February 17, 2012,
will review the international treaty that governs radiocommunications --
the ITU Radio Regulations <>.
The conference will be preceded by the Radiocommunication Assembly
(RA-12), also to be held in Geneva, January 16-20, 2012.

The agenda for WRC-12, developed by the delegates at the last WRC in
Geneva in 2007 (WRC-07), was formally adopted by the ITU Council in
2008. There are 25 agenda items addressing potential new or revised
spectrum allocations to existing services. A key objective is the review
of the international regulatory framework applicable to
radiocommunications. This review should reflect the convergence of some
radio services arising from the development of next-generation networks
(NGN) <>, as well
as new radio applications and technologies. Of most interest to amateurs
is agenda item 1.23, "to consider an allocation of about 15 kHz in parts
of the band 415-526.5 kHz to the amateur service on a secondary basis,
taking into account the need to protect existing services."

"This agenda item is the highest item on my long term priority list,"
said ARRL Technical Relations Manager Brennan Price, N4QX. "We are
fortunate that this upcoming WRC presents an opportunity for a new
secondary allocation in the medium waves. While the outcome is far from
certain, our experience in other bands -- most notably 30 meters --
indicates Amateur Radio's compatibility with certain other services as a
secondary user."

According to the ITU, WRC-12 will focus on appropriate spectrum sharing
mechanisms to make the best use of the digital dividend in the UHF and
other frequency bands, providing new opportunities for
radiocommunication services. It will also identify the spectrum
requirements to increase security for both maritime and aeronautical
transport services. Additional spectrum resources will also be
identified for scientific and other radiocommunication services,
specifically related to the environment, meteorology and climatology, as
well as disaster prediction, mitigation and relief. Along with the
introduction of more efficient digital services requiring less power
consumption, WRC-12 will be a milestone to meet ITU's commitment to
achieve climate neutrality with the use of Information and
Communications Technologies (ICTs)
> as effective tools to combat climate change and its effects.

Along with IARU volunteers worldwide, Price and Siverling are monitoring
developments on a number of other agenda items that could affect Amateur
Radio if they take unanticipated turns, including:
* Agenda item 1.14, considering requirements for and implementation of
the radiolocation service (radar) between 30-300 MHz.
* Agenda item 1.15, considering possible allocations between 3-50 MHz
for oceanographic radar applications.
* Agenda item 1.19, considering regulatory measures to enable
software-defined and cognitive radio systems.
* Agenda item 1.22, examining the effect of emissions from short-range

"Oceanographic radar is perhaps our biggest defensive issue," Price
said. "Fortunately, its proponents have acknowledged that sharing with
Amateur Radio would be problematic."

The ITU preparatory meetings ahead of WRC-12 provide an opportunity to
exchange information and views on the ongoing studies regarding WRC-12
agenda items, as well as on the common proposals and positions of the
regional groups and other organizations. The discussions in this meeting
addressed all WRC-12 agenda items and identified those deserving special
consideration for African countries, including the sensitive issue
related to the operation of security systems for ships and ports and the
shared use of the planned digital TV spectrum by other services.

The Director of ITU's Radiocommunication Bureau Valery Timofeev noted
that the agenda for WRC-12 was likely to be as complex as the previous
World Radiocommunication Conference held in 2007. "We need to continue
the trend toward increasing the number of common and coordinated
proposals," he explained. "This process, which highlights the great
spirit of international cooperation and consensus building at ITU, has
proved to be increasingly successful in the WRC process." Timofeev added
that the level of participation at the meeting indicated the importance
of the WRC process "to improve regulatory procedures, to provide
frequency and orbit resources for new technologies and to strengthen the
technical framework for the operation of services."

Recognizing that WRC-12 is an important event for the future of
information and communication technologies, ITU Secretary-General
Hamadoun Toure, HB9EHT, said the forthcoming conference will be a
landmark in achieving ITU's connectivity targets: "WRC-12 will be held
only three years ahead of 2015 -- the target date to connect all
villages, towns and cities, universities and schools in the world and to
achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
<>. If there is any chance to meet
these goals, we must rely on ICTs -- omnipresent tools with profound
implications for all economic sectors -- to accelerate the process and
bridge the digital divide."  -- Thanks to the ITU for some information


After asking for feedback from ARRL Letter subscribers and reviewing
surveys sent to ARRL members, we are changing the way you receive The
ARRL Letter. Starting next week -- October 1 -- The ARRL Letter will be
available to subscribers in an HTML formatted version. Each message will
contain both an HTML and a plain-text version of the Letter, and the
recipient's mail program can choose which version to display. For our
members who prefer a plain-text version of the Letter, there will be
simple instructions on the ARRL Letter Web page that describe how to
view the plain-text version in some of the more common mail programs.

According to ARRL News Editor S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA, this new format
will allow for more graphics and pictures, as well as occasional
articles that feature the technical side of Amateur Radio. We will also
be running portions of popular QST features, such as "The Doctor Is IN"
and "Hints & Kinks." 

"I am very excited about presenting The ARRL Letter in a completely new
format," Keane said. "Not only will we be able to add features such as
pictures and video, but by offering the Letter in HTML, readers will be
able to navigate directly to those stories they are most interested in.
The ARRL already offers two other newsletters -- The ARRL Contest Update
and The ARRL ARES E-Letter -- in an HTML version. We have received a lot
of positive feedback on these two newsletters."

The ARRL Letter first appeared in 1981 as a print publication, available
by subscription from the League. In 1991 -- following the technology of
the day -- it moved from being a print publication to being published
electronically and sent via e-mail as a free service to ARRL members.
"Now, once again, we at the ARRL are following technology's path and
publishing The ARRL Letter in a new way, moving from plain text to a
graphically pleasing interface," Keane explained.

We think you will enjoy this new format, and we welcome your comments.
Tell us what you like -- and don't like -- by sending an e-mail to Keane
<>;, with "ARRL Letter Feedback" in the subject line.


The fall operating season is just around the corner. Whether it's
because radio conditions improve or just because attention returns to
indoor pursuits as the days get shorter, on-the-air activity always
picks up at this time of the year.

Do you operate on 40 meters? "If you haven't been on the band lately,
you're in for a real treat!" said ARRL Chief Executive Officer David
Sumner, K1ZZ. "Years of patient effort by the ARRL and by our sister
members of the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) have paid off.
The band is more useful now than it's been in more than 70 years. When
you think of 40 meters, you probably think of interference from foreign
broadcasters. Here in the Americas, amateurs always have had access to
7,000-7,300 kHz - but we had to tolerate broadcasters in the rest of the
world in the upper two-thirds of the band." 

Sumner said he can recall the "futility" he felt as a 13-year-old
Novice, "trying to make myself heard through the racket with just two
crystal-controlled transmitting frequencies to choose from. I remember
taking the crystal holders apart and putting pencil lead on the crystals
in a vain attempt to slip in between the broadcasting behemoths." At the
2003 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-03) -- 40 years later --
he had the privilege of being present in Geneva when it was agreed that
amateurs had made the case for a wider worldwide amateur band, free of
broadcasting interference." For the first time in the history of radio
communication, an HF broadcasting allocation would be shifted in order
to accommodate the needs of another radio service -- the Amateur Radio

Sumner called the WRC-03 decision "very gratifying," but said an
important question remained: Would the broadcasters really move? "The
International Telecommunication Union has no enforcement authority," he
explained, "and operation in contravention of the international Radio
Regulations is not exactly unknown. In fact, the transition turned out
to be quite dramatic. On the last weekend of March, on Friday evening
7,100-7,200 kHz was full of broadcasters as usual -- but as the new
seasonal broadcasting schedule took effect on Saturday night the band
cleared of all but a few. For the very first time our overseas friends
could hear us on 40 meter phone without having to breach the wall of
broadcasters! Over the past six months the situation has continued to
improve as more broadcasters have complied with the WRC-03 decision.
Nighttime operation above 7,200 kHz remains a challenge, but it's not an
exaggeration to say that 40 meters is like a whole new band."

Sumner explained that moving hundreds of broadcast transmitters in
dozens of countries out of a band didn't just happen: "It took years of
patient effort by a global team of volunteers and ARRL professionals,
working through the IARU, to overcome objections and marshal the
necessary support. It was an expensive undertaking, and it never could
have been accomplished without the voluntary contributions - above and
beyond their basic dues - of thousands of ARRL members." 

Even as we celebrate our reborn 40 meter band, Sumner said that we, as
amateurs, must remember that it takes hard work just to hang onto what
we have. "As much as we like to pursue new and improved ham bands, most
of our effort must go toward frequency defense," he said. "Every day,
new uses of the radio spectrum are being conceived. Each one competes
for spectrum access with incumbent radio services, including ours. Not
only must we defend our allocations against well-heeled backers of
licensed services, we must also try to prevent the pollution of the
radio spectrum by unlicensed devices. The fight goes on in Washington,
Geneva and around the globe -- and there's no end in sight."

Decisions for WRC-12 are being made now that will determine how many
administrations -- including the United States - will support a new
secondary allocation to the Amateur Service at 500 kHz, and whether
proposals for allocations to oceanographic radars will threaten some of
our existing HF bands. "We are hard at work meeting these challenges,
but we need your help," Sumner said, in asking for support for the ARRL
Spectrum Defense Fund. "Members' past response helped us to keep
commercial satellites out of the 144 and 420 MHz bands, to gain access
to frequencies around 5 MHz, and to win our court challenge of the FCC's
flawed Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) rules. New challenges keep
cropping up. Currently we are working to ensure that new short-range
medical devices do not impact our ability to use our UHF and microwave

To help in the ARRL's ongoing mission to protect our valuable spectrum,
please visit the Spectrum Defense area on the ARRL Web site
<>. You can also reach ARRL Chief
Development Officer Mary Hobart, K1MMH, at 860-594-0397 or via e-mail
<>;. Special gifts are being offered for contributions,
including a mug and pin. More details on thank you gifts can be found on
the donation form for the Spectrum Defense Fund.


Since 1999 when Jeff Holland -- former city editor for "The
Enquirer-Journal" in Monroe, North Carolina -- was named the first
winner of the Bill Leonard, W2SKE Professional Media Award, there has
been only one award given out each year. The award -- honoring the late
Bill Leonard, a former president of CBS News -- recognizes a
professional journalist whose outstanding coverage best reflects the
enjoyment, importance and public service value of the Amateur Radio

"At the time, printed newspapers were still a main news source," said
ARRL Media and Public Relations Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP. "Now there
is the Internet, a host of blogs and news sites, audio and video
streaming, cell phone alerts and many more news outlets still in
development. The world of media and news reporting has been caught in
the rip-currents of technology and it's causing the overnight erosion of
old models while creating new opportunities." 

Pitts remembers when it once was a major accomplishment for an Amateur
Radio Public Information Officer (PIO) to get a few column inches in
ink. "Now, the same positive PR outcomes can be achieved by placement on
community Web sites and inclusion in blogs," he explained. "In the
meantime, video capabilities have become available to almost anyone with
a cell phone and ever more media outlets are incorporating video clips
into their product." 

The ARRL Public Relations Committee recognized that one award, looking
at only one medium, was no longer the best fit to the current realities
of PR, and the best way to update the Leonard Award was to solicit input
from the very professionals who worked in this new media arena. With a
subcommittee of nationally recognized reporters and media managers, they
looked not only at the award itself, but also at ways to make it a
catalyst for even more coverage of Amateur Radio topics in the future.
Their recommendations were presented to the ARRL Board of Directors this
past July. To address both current and coming news modalities, the award
was split into three areas: 
* Audio formats -- primarily something you listen to
* Visual formats -- primarily something you watch 
* Print and Text formats -- primarily something you read 

Each of the three categories will have an honorarium of $250 for the
best selection within that category, but the PRC can also exercise
discretion to withhold an award within a category in any given year
based on the quality and content of submissions, Pitts explained. 

"Many news outlets have strict rules against reporters receiving any
cash or other material prizes from outside sources," he said. "What may
be a 'prize' to one person could be seen as 'kickback' to another. So
the Leonard honorariums will no longer go to the recipients, but rather
to Internal Revenue Service 501[c](3) recognized non-profit
organizations of the recipients' choosing. The three recipients will
still receive personalized plaques. In this way the recipient can donate
the $250 to their favorite charity (or even back to the ARRL). This
avoids burdening nominated reporters with any ethics issues." 

Complete information on the Bill Leonard Award, including entry and
selection criteria, can be found in the November 2009 issue of QST.


This weekend, 12 Section Managers who are new -- or returning after a
long absence -- to their post are in Newington for an orientation. The
primary purposes of the Workshop sessions are to share ideas and to
provide basic administrative, management, leadership and motivational

"The Section Manager Workshop is an orientation and training event for
new Section Managers that have come on board within the last year or
so," said Supervisor of the ARRL Field Organization Team Steve Ewald,
WV1X. "ARRL has conducted this training each year at HQ for the past
several years, and it has been well received by past participants. The
Membership and Volunteer Programs Department Staff and its Field
Organization Team are the lead coordinators of the event. We also cover
the responsibilities and functions of the Section Manager's position,
and the SMs are able to visit with ARRL Headquarters staff members and
learn more about the many programs that ARRL supports. The Workshop
sessions are presented by several ARRL Headquarter staff members who are
experts in their respective areas."

Arkansas Section Manager J.M. Rowe, N5XFW; Eastern Massachusetts Section
Manager Mike Neilsen, W1MPN; Georgia Section Manager Gene Clark, W4AYK;
Iowa Section Manager Tom Brehmer, N0LOH; Los Angeles Section Manager
David Greenhut, N6HD; New York City-Long Island Section Manager Mike
Lisenco, N2YBB; North Texas Section Manager Jay Urish, W5GM; Oklahoma
Section Manager Dean Fekan, KL7MA; San Joaquin Valley Section Manager
Dan Pruitt, AE6SX; Southern New Jersey Section Manager George Strayline,
W2GSS; South Texas Section Manager Lee Cooper, W5LHC, and Wyoming
Section Manager Garth Crowe, N7XKT, are in attendance.


Did you know the ARRL offers more newsletters than just The ARRL Letter?
One of the many ARRL membership benefits includes other newsletters,
such as the ARRL Contest Update (a bi-weekly contest newsletter), the
ARES E-Letter (sent monthly, containing public service and emergency
communications news), the ARRL Club News, the ARRL Instructor/Teacher
E-Letter and the VE Newsletter, just to name a few. 

You can also elect to receive news and information from your Division
Director and Section Manager (keep in mind that not all
Divisions/Sections send notices), as well as W1AW bulletins that relate
to DX, propagation, satellites and Keplerian reports. The ARRL also
offers a free notification service to members, letting them know when
their membership and license are due to expire. 

Sign up for these newsletters, bulletins and notifications on the Member
Data page of the ARRL Web site


Tad "Him whose strenuous tongue can burst Joy's grape against his palate
fine" Cook, K7RA, this week reports: Two large sunspots, 1026 and 1027,
both emerged in the past few days.  We could see them in advance of
their appearance while they formed on the side of the sun previously
unseen from earth, via the NASA STEREO mission, mentioned in last week's
bulletin. These spots, emerging on the autumnal equinox, should enhance
HF propagation, and expect them to increase in size as they move into
the most geoeffective position over the next couple of days. We will
discuss this more in the Solar Update, available on the ARRL Web site on
Friday, September 25. For more information concerning radio propagation,
visit the ARRL Technical Information Service Propagation page
<>. To read this week's
Solar Report in its entirety, check out the W1AW Propagation Bulletin
page <>. This week's "Tad Cookism" brought
to you by John Keats' "Ode on Melancholy"



* This Week on the Radio: Next week, look for the NCCC Sprint on
September 25. The Texas QSO Party, the CQ Worldwide DX Contest (RTTY)
and Scandinavian Activity Contest (SSB) are all September 26-27. QRP
Homebrewer Sprint is September 28, and the Fall 222 MHz Sprint is
September 29. Next week, the California QSO Party and the Oceana DX
Contest are October 3-4. The Fall 432 MHz Sprint is October 7. All
dates, unless otherwise stated, are UTC. See the ARRL Contest Branch
page <>, the ARRL Contest Update
<> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info. Looking
for a Special Event station? Be sure to check out the ARRL Special Event
Station Web page <>. 

* ARRL Continuing Education Course Registration: Registration remains
open through Sunday, October 25, 2009, for these online course sessions
beginning on Friday, November 6, 2009: Amateur Radio Emergency
Communications Level 1; Antenna Modeling; Radio Frequency Interference;
Antenna Design and Construction; Ham Radio (Technician) License Course;
Propagation; Analog Electronics, and Digital Electronics. Each online
course has been developed in segments -- learning units with objectives,
informative text, student activities and quizzes. Courses are
interactive, and some include direct communications with a
Mentor/Instructor. Students register for a particular session that may
be 8, 12 or 16 weeks (depending on the course) and they may access the
course at any time of day during the course period, completing lessons
and activities at times convenient for their personal schedule. Mentors
assist students by answering questions, reviewing assignments and
activities, as well as providing helpful feedback. Interaction with
mentors is conducted through e-mail; there is no appointed time the
student must be present -- allowing complete flexibility for the student
to work when and where it is convenient. To learn more, visit the CCE
Course Listing page <> or contact the
Continuing Education Program Coordinator <>;.

* ARRL to Welcome USTTI Students: Next month -- October 12-16 -- the
ARRL will welcome students from various countries from all over the
world who want to learn how to administer and regulate Amateur Radio
programs in their home countries. This course, offered by the United
States Telecommunications Training Institute (USTTI)
<>, will help participants create, administer and
foster an Amateur Radio Service in their countries. Designed for those
in developing countries who regulate and manage their country's Amateur
Radio Service, this course will help participants learn just who radio
amateurs are. ARRL staff instructors will help course participants
discover the ever-expanding universe of Amateur Radio communication.
They will explain why Amateur Radio operators -- upwards of three
million individuals in virtually every country of the world -- have
earned licenses to operate stations in the Service and why they are
recognized, both by their governments and internationally, as a valuable
voluntary telecommunications resource. Course participants will also
discover how a telecommunications administration can bring the benefits
of a healthy Amateur Service to its nation. Now in its 27th year, USTTI
is a nonprofit venture involving leading US-based communications and
information technology corporations and leaders of the federal
government cooperating to provide tuition-free management, policy and
technical training for talented professionals from the developing world.
This is the 25th year the ARRL has participated in the program.

* More CubeSats in Orbit: Early Thursday morning (UTC), an Indian
PSLV-C14 rocket carried the Oceansat-2 satellite
<> to orbit, along with four
CubeSats and two RubinSats. The RubinSats are 8 kg research modules that
will remain attached to the PSLV-C14 booster. CubeSats are very small
satellites, typically only a few inches on each side. As they are a
relatively inexpensive research spacecraft, they've become increasingly
popular with university science programs. A number of CubeSats use
Amateur Radio frequencies to downlink telemetry, as is the case with
this latest group. Early reports indicate that all of the CubeSats are
active. You can check out the frequencies and modes of the four
satellites on the ARRL Web site

The ARRL Letter is published Thursdays, 50 times each year, by the
American Radio Relay League: ARRL -- the national association for
Amateur Radio, 225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax
860-594-0259; <>. Joel Harrison, W5ZN, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential and general
news of interest to active radio amateurs. Visit the ARRL Web site
<> for the latest Amateur Radio news and news
updates. The ARRL Web site <> also offers
informative features and columns. ARRL Audio News
<> is a weekly "ham radio newscast"
compiled and edited from The ARRL Letter. It's also available as a
podcast from our Web site.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole
or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be
given to The ARRL Letter/American Radio Relay League.

==>Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!):
==>Editorial questions or comments: S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA,
==>ARRL News on the Web: <>
==>ARRL Audio News: <> or call

==>How to Get The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter is available to ARRL members free of charge directly
from ARRL HQ. To subscribe, unsubscribe or change your address for
e-mail delivery: 
ARRL members first must register on the Members Only Web Site
<>. You'll have an opportunity during
registration to sign up for e-mail delivery of The ARRL Letter, W1AW
bulletins, and other material. To change these selections--including
delivery of The ARRL Letter--registered members should click on the
"Member Data Page" link (in the Members Only box). Click on "Modify
membership data," check or uncheck the appropriate boxes and/or change
your e-mail address if necessary. (Check "Temporarily disable all
automatically sent email" to temporarily stop all e-mail deliveries.)
Then, click on "Submit modification" to make selections effective.
(NOTE: HQ staff members cannot change your e-mail delivery address. You
must do this yourself via the Members Only Web Site.)

The ARRL Letter also is available to all, free of charge, from these

* ARRLWeb <>. (NOTE: The ARRL Letter will
be posted each Thursday when it is distributed via e-mail.)

* The listserver, thanks to volunteers from the Boston Amateur
Radio Club: Visit Mailing Lists@QTH.Net
<>. (NOTE: The ARRL
cannot assist subscribers who receive The ARRL Letter via this

Copyright 2009 American Radio Relay League, Inc.
All Rights Reserved. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA
ARRL News Editor
ARRL - the national association for Amateur Radio (tm)


The ARRL Letter

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

Much of the ARRL Letter content is also available in audio form in ARRL Audio News.

Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to The ARRL Letter and The American Radio Relay League.

Back issues published since 2000 are available on this page. If you wish to subscribe via e-mail, simply log on to the ARRL Web site, click on Edit Your Profile at the top, then click on Edit Email Subscriptions. Check the box next to The ARRL email newsletter, the ARRL Letter and you will receive each weekly issue in HTML format. You can unsubscribe at any time.

Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!):

Editorial questions or comments: John E. Ross, KD8IDJ, at


The ARRL E-Letter e-mail is also available in plain-text version:

Outlook Express

1. From the Inbox view, select the Tools menu and the Options selection.

2. Click the Read tab

3. Check the Read All Messages In Plain Text box.  When you open the e-mail, it will be in plain text without images. Other e-mail programs may be able to make a Mail Rule for e-mail received from the address so that the plain-text-only display is selected automatically.

Outlook 2007

Use the same procedure as for Outlook Express, although the global option is under "Tools/Trust Center/E-mail Security".


Use the menu item "View/Message Body As/Plain Text" or "View/Message Source" options.

OS X Mail (Mac)

Use the "View/Message/Plain Text Alternative" menu item.


Use the "Message text garbled?" link in the drop-down menu at the upper right of the displayed message block. pine, alpine Set "prefer-plain-text" in your ~/.pinerc configuration file: feature-list=..., prefer-plain-text, ...


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